Skip to main content


Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  

Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Understanding the use of various fonts and typo issues with Web design

INTRODUCTION TO THE TYPE TOOLWho doesn't know the Type Tool? This is maybe one of the most powerful and useful tools of Photoshop. We've all used it at least once, but do you know all its potential? Let us discuss about Photoshop's Type tool, including do's and don'ts of the most important features of this tool. 

Type is the Photoshop tool to create vector outlines and mathematical shapes to define the symbols of a typeface. It's located on the standard Tool Bar as a tiny T. The keyboard shortcut of this is the letter (T), and if you hold click over that tool (or Shift + T several times) you'll see four options: Horizontal Type, Vertical Type, Horizontal Type Mask and Vertical Type Mask. 

Once you've select your desired Type Tool, you'll notice the mouse cursor changes into the standard Type cursor, something like an I, this means the document is ready to put text on it. 

There's two ways to create a text layer, which are Point and Paragraph Type: 

  • Point Type: This option will create a Type layer into a single line, the break lines must be placed by you hitting Enter key in the keyboard. 

To create a Point Type layer select your desired Type Tool (Horizontal or Vertical text), and click one time with the cursor anywhere you want to put the text in. Then just start writing, when you have finished to add the text, click the tiny Commit button on the Option bar. Paragraph Type: This option will create a Text layer with text wrapping into a bounding box. Is pretty useful for both print and web design. To add a Paragraph layer you must create the bounding box first. You can Click and Drag the cursor diagonally until you've got your desired size. 

You can resize and transform each text layer as any other. This kind of transforming will stretch, enlarge, or badly distort the type shape. 
If you really want a good result on a Paragraph Type layer, you must do the following: Select the Type tool, and click over the Paragraph text, then go to one of the transform handles and click and drag to resize the box, the text will automatically reflow inside the new box. Shiftdrag to preserve the proportion. Command (Ctrl)-drag on a center handle to skew the type box. 

  • Basic Formatting -

After typing some text, you obviously want to change the font face, color and more, this is really simple. First show the Character window by going to Window > Character. The Character window has several Options to format characters, following there're some examples about formatting Font Family, Style, Size and Color (you must double-click on color sample to see the color picker). After committing the type, select the type tool then click on the text layer you want to edit, make a selection and change the character format of the selected text. 

You can easily customize both kerning and Tracking in Photoshop. Select a text layer or make a text selection and look in Character window for the Kern and Track values. You're able to customize the kern by selecting between Metrics Kerning or Optical Kerning.  
Kerning is an adjustment of space between two specific letters.  The goal of kerning is to create a consistent rhythm of space within a group of letters and to create an appearance of even spacing between letters. Fonts have exact amounts of spacing between letter combinations already built into it, which is called Metric Kerning. Optical kerning will adjust the kern based on the font shape. Besides you can customize the kern values by selecting a numeric value (positive or negative) in the Kerning field after clicking on the middle of the two letters.

Scale the text layer both horizontally and vertically by changing the Scale values in the Character window. Just as advice, I almost never use those scaling values because when you distort a typeface you're distorting the shape itself, and sometimes creating an undesirable result, look at the image below, the nice Century Gothic's 'O' character is a perfect circle without scaling it, and it turns into an oval when you change the scaling values. Besides notice the shapes aren't regular, i.e. the line width is wider at top and bottom of the 'O' character when you change the vertical scaling. 

This is very useful when you want to make your text layer fit somewhere, such as around an image. Change this value to move the baseline of a text selection above or below the baseline of the rest of the text layer. 

Photoshop has the option to auto create a Faux Bold and Italic variation for any typeface, pretty useful sometimes, but you must take special care in order to distort the type shape as little as possible. Below there are examples of Faux Bold on the Arial typeface, which isn't distorting the type shape that much, but applying Faux Italic on Myriad actually distorts the original italic style of the typeface (look at the 'a' character for example). 

You can easily customize the font variant or convert it to Small Caps. To do so, just select a text layer, or make a text selection, and click on the respective button in the Character Window. In case of change in Photoshop, if we click on ‘All caps’, fonts will change into capital letters. Now if click on small caps it will reduce the font size. If we click second time then fonts will be converted into small letters. 

Anti-aliasing produces smooth-edged text making the text borders blend into the background layer/image. There're four anti-aliasing options: Sharp, Crisp, Strong and Smooth, and obviously the option none

Either in both Point and Paragraph text layer you can adjust the leading (vertical space) between lines. Leave it as an automatic value by selecting (auto) for the Leading value, or type a custom value to adjust the space by yourself. 

  • Basic alignment

Since a Paragraph Text Layer can contain multiple lines, formatting them is very important for the quality of any design, that's what the Paragraph window is about. Open it by going to Window > Paragraph. Create a paragraph text layer, type something, and commit the text. 
Of course, the basic feature on Paragraph text is Align. You can easily customize the alignment (Left, Center, Right or Justify) by clicking on the icons in the Paragraph window, besides there are three more options for Justify Alignment, changing the alignment of the last line of the text layer or the selected text (Left, Center, Right). 
To customize the Justify alignment, go to the Paragraph palette menu and click on Justification, there you'll be able to configure Word and Letter Spacing. 

Indenting is quite easy. Just select a text layer, or make a text selection, and write or slice both left or right Indent values. You can indent a text selection left or right, or indent the first line of a Paragraph as shown in the second image below. 
Besides, you can easily add space between paragraphs (before or after) in the Paragraph window, just type a custom value in the Space Before or the Space after paragraph. 

One of the most powerful features of the Type Tool is the capability to warp any text layer according to your particular needs. To warp a type layer double-click on the Text and go to Layer then select type. From type select wrap text. 

You can create a type layer that flows along a work path created by using the Pen Tool. To create a Type on a path, first draw a path by using the Pen Tool, then select the Type Tool and place the cursor anywhere on the path, you'll see the shape of the cursor changes the baseline for an ‘S’ shaped line. Click on the path and write some text. 

The process to add a text layer on a shape is the same. First, ensure the shapes is selected, do this by using the Path Selection Tool to select the shape. Once the path is visible, select the Type Tool and click anywhere over the path and write something. You can edit any Character option, a good example is increasing the Baseline Shift a little bit to create a space between text and shape. 

Modifying the shape of a character is a need, for several purposes, like logo design. Photoshop makes this easy. Just create a text layer and go to Layer > Type > Convert to Shape. This tool will convert the type into a Vector Layer Mask, which can be edited as any other shape. 

Finally, you can do most of the described features of the type tool. For this click and hold on the Type Tool until more options appears. There select Horizontal (or Vertical) Type Mask. By selecting this tool you'll be able to create a quick selection with the shape. Below is a small example of a word written using the Type Mask Tool. I used that selection to create a Layer Mask over a picture. 

  • Conclusion note: Type tool is one of the most powerful features of Photoshop. With practice you'll become a master after playing with characters and paragraphs. There are no limits of what you can create with this wonderful tool. 


Popular posts from this blog

What if Analysis

What-If Analysis What-If Analysis in Excel allows you to try out different values (scenarios) for formulas. The following example helps you master what-if analysis quickly and easily.  Use scenarios to consider many different variables  A scenario is a set of values that Excel saves and can substitute automatically in cells on a worksheet. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of these new scenarios to view different results. 
Create Different Scenarios 
Note: You can simply type in a different revenue and Cost into cell B2 and B3 respectively to see the corresponding result of a scenario in cell B4. However, what-if analysis enables you to easily compare the results of different scenarios.  
I. On the Data tab, click What-If Analysis and select Scenario Manager from the list. The Scenario Manager Dialog box appears  II. Add a scenario by clicking on Add.  III. Type a name (e.g. “First Case”), select cell B2 and B3 (represents “Revenue” and “…


Asking For and Giving Opinions on Likes and Dislikes

Words Meaning Sample Sentence Opinion A statement or judgment formed about some matter. Bhoomika gave her final opinion on the company’s matter. Dialogue A conversation between two or more people. Her dialogue stated her opinion about the company’s matter. Expression The action of making known one’s thought or feelings. Her expression was sad at the meeting. Frank An open, honest, and direct speech or writing Bhoomika is very frank with her friends. Recover Return to normal state of health, mind or strength. The company’s economic crisis will be recovered soon. Turmoil A state of great disturbance. The company is facing financial turmoil. Economics The branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth. Bhoomika studied Economics at the State University. Betrayed Expose to danger by treacherously giving information to an enemy.


Apology Etiquette and Office Vocabulary 

Chapter Vocabulary

Word Meaning Sample Sentence Stressed A state of any mental or emotional tension. Ram seems much stressed after his poor exam. Launch An act of instance of starting something. The government launched a new scheme for the poor people. Error A mistake Ravi found a grammatical error in his new grammar book. Scold Blaming someone for any wrong doing Bhuvan scolded his employees for their poor performance. Accuse Claiming that someone has done something wrong. Bharati accuses her friend Chaya for stealing her necklace. Fair Good and honest Ravi got promoted for doing a fair job. Ashamed Embarrassed or guilty because of one’s action. <