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Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  

Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Print Industry, Printing technology

The type of printer is very important when we are actually printing the images. The fact is that the printer we use can and should influence how we work in Photoshop and how we prepare our image because we will want to create a final image that will print best from our particular printer: 
Let us have a look at the most commonly used printers.  

  • Inkjet Printers: These printers are inexpensive and are used at home and offices. They deliver acceptable-quality color printing. The quality of output varies between inkjet printers, ranging from fair to excellent, depending on how much we want to spend. Inkjet printers are available in four color, six color and eight color ink cartridge.  
  • Laser Printers: The laser printer is the professional standard and a good balance of price, quality and speed. Laser printers are generally faster than inkjet printers, but they tend to be more expensive. These printers mostly output 300 to 600dots per inch and some up to 1200dpi (DPI is a measure of spatial printing or video dot density)
  • Dye-Sublimation Printers: These printers are expensive but give excellent photographic-quality prints. New desktop dye sublimation printers give perfect prints. The drawback is that they only make 4 by 6 prints. 
  • Image setters: Image setters are printers used for medium – or large-scale commercial printing jobs. These printers are large in size and also expensive. They work on high resolution: 1200-2400dpi or even better. 

As the RGB and CMYK color models use different methods to display colors, they each reproduce a different range of colors. The color space (A color space is a specific implementation of a color model) of any device is defined by the range of colors it can reproduce.  Color management capabilities have become an important feature in Photoshop, and are managed by a collection of predefined settings for monitors and printers, and even print media. Each setting includes a corresponding color profile which should give us consistent color for a particular kind of printer under typical conditions. The printer has smaller color space than the application that created the color. To make these differences appear to be lesser and ensure the closest match between on screen colors and the colors that get printed, applications use a Color Management System (CMS)

Printers use software called printer drivers that function as part of our operating system, whether it is Mac or Windows. The driver converts the output from Photoshop into a form that the printer can understand and reproduce on paper. Photoshop has four print-related dialog boxes. Let us have a look at some of the important terms related to these print related dialog boxes.  

Page Setup is part of the printer driver.  From here we can change things such as  

Halftones are created through a process called dithering, in which the density and pattern of black and white dots are varied to simulate different shades of gray.   
Print with preview is specific to Photoshop. The print with preview command lets you preview how your photo will print so the results are more predictable. 
  • When we are ready to print we need to take mainly the following things into consideration: Parameters for the halftone screen  
  • Print a color composite (A color composite is created by combining three raster images), often referred to as a color comp. It is a single print that combines all channels of RGB or CMYK image.  
  • Print separation  
  • Print to film
Raster image - Raster graphics, also called bitmap graphics, a type of digital image that uses tiny rectangular pixels

Printing Color Separations: By default, a CMYK image prints as a single document. When we print full-color photos with an offset printing press, one must first separate the photo into the four basic ink colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK). 

Offset printing is a commonly used technique in which the inked image is transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. 

Adobe Photoshop is the standard for graphic editing and photo retouching. This also means that the number of options and functions it has might overwhelm the user. Photoshop's Print Preview is one of those. Photoshop gives you total control over the print options of your graphics. 

Offset printing is a commonly used technique in which the inked image is transferred (or “offset”) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface.  
To access the Print Preview window go to File>Print with Preview. Let's explore the Preview window. On the top left you of course see the preview of your document. Next to the preview you see the value within the Position pane. Those values control how your image will print on your page. In this illustration, Centre Image is checked, but if it was unchecked, you would be able to decide exactly where your image is supposed to print, by changing the X and Y values. If you don't like inches, you can choose to set your values in centimeters, millimeters, points or picas. Changing those values does not affect the size your graphic will print at on your page. 

The Scaled Print Size pane instead does act on the size of your graphic. You can change the size of your graphic by typing a percentage in the Scale field or by typing a value either in the Height or Width field.  Changing value in either field will change the value of the other one proportionally. The little chain icon on the right factually means that the proportions will be maintained. If the Show Bounding Box option is checked, Photoshop will show the boundaries of your graphic. In our example the black rectangle around the graphic you see in the preview is the bounding box. The bounding box will not be printed with the image, it only shows up in the preview. It allows you to change the size of your graphic by dragging the mouse from it either inwards (to reduce the size) or outwards (to increase the size). 

If you need to change the paper size you are printing on, go to Page Setup on the right hand side of the preview window. Under the Page Setup button, you can see a button that says Fewer Options. If you click on it, you will see that all the options you see under the preview pane will disappear.  
Under the preview pane, you will see a drop down menu. By default it should be set to Color Management, but you will see that the pull down menu offers also another option, i.e. Output.

Colors in a graphic don't look on my monitor the same way they do on yours. On my monitor colors might look bluer, maybe darker, while on your monitor colors might look redder. This is normal. Even amongst monitors of the same brand colors will look different. This is the same also when printing graphics. One printer will differ from the other, even if they are of the same brand. One ink will differ from the other and one type of paper will differ from the other. Color Management helps you to make sure that colors look the same when viewed on or printed from different devices. 

When you choose Color Management in the Print Preview window, you will see three panes under it: the Print pane, the Options pane and the Description pane. Whenever you move your mouse over one of the options in the Print preview window, the Description pane will have an explanation of that option. In the Print pane you can choose either Document or Proof. When Document is selected, Photoshop will print your graphic using the current color settings ---- either the printer settings or Photoshop's settings. Whether that be the first or the latter, it is determined by what choice you make in the "Color Handling" drop down menu, where you can choose "Let Printer Determine Colors," "Let Photoshop Determine Colors" or "No Color Management".  
The Print preview window can show you the Color Management options or the Output options. To see the Output options, choose Output in the pull down menu under the preview pane. 
You will see that the lower options in the Print preview window will change. The options you see are mainly related to professional output. Here you can set things like bleed, screen frequency and so on. 
If you get to deal with these options at all, you will probably use the Background and the Border options. The background changes the background color your image will print on while the border will add a colored border around your image. Whenever your print settings are done press print. 


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