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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM

NETWORKING OPERATING SYSTEM
Just as a Computer cannot operate without a computer operating system, a network of computers cannot operate without a network operating system. Without a network operating system of some kind, individual computers cannot share resources, and other users cannot make use of those resources. Depending on a network operating system's manufacturer, a desktop computer's networking software can be either added to the computer's own operating system or integrated with it. Nov-ell's Net-Ware is the most familiar and popular example of an NOS in which the client computer's networking software is added on to its existing computer operating system. The desktop computer needs both operating systems in order to handle standalone and networking functions together. Network operating system software is integrated into a number of popular operating systems including Windows 2000 Server/Windows 2000 Professional, Windows NT Server/Windows NT Workstation, Windows 98, Windows 95, and AppleTalk. Currently we have windows server 2012 in market, which have lots of network management features. 

A computer's operating system coordinates the interaction between the computer and the programs—or applications—it is running. It controls the allocation and use of hardware resources such as:  

  • Memory. 
  • CPU time. 
  • Disk space. 
  • Peripheral devices. 

In a networking environment, servers provide resources to the network clients, and client network software makes these resources available to the client computer. The network and the client operating systems are coordinated so that all portions of the network function properly. 

A multitasking operating system, as the name suggests, provides the means for a computer to process more than one task at a time. A true multitasking operating system can run as many tasks as there are processors. If there are more tasks than processors, the computer must arrange for the available processors to devote a certain amount of time to each task, alternating between tasks until all are completed. With this system, the computer appears to be working on several tasks at once.  


  • Preemptive: In preemptive multitasking, the operating system can take control of the processor without the task's cooperation. 
  • No preemptive (cooperative): In no preemptive multitasking, the task itself decides when to give up the processor. Programs written for no preemptive multitasking systems must include provisions for yielding control of the processor. No other program can run until the no preemptive program has given up control of the processor. 

Because the interaction between the stand-alone operating system and the NOS is ongoing, a preemptive multitasking system offers certain advantages. For example, when the situation requires it, the preemptive system can shift CPU activity from a local task to a network task. 


For computer operating systems that do not include networking functions, network client software must be installed on top of the existing operating system. Other operating systems, such as Windows NT, integrate the network and the computer operating systems. While these integrated systems have some advantages, they do not preclude using other NOSs. When setting up multi-vendor network environments, it is important to consider the issue of interoperability. (Elements or components of computer operating systems are said to "interoperate" when they can function in different computer environments.) A Net-Ware server, for instance, can interoperate with other servers such as Windows NT, and users of Apple computers can interoperate with (that is, access resources on) both Net-Ware and Windows NT servers. 

  • Ties together all computers and peripherals. 
  • Coordinates the functions of all computers and peripherals. 
  • Provides security by controlling access to data and peripherals. 


  • Network software that is installed on clients. 
  • Network software that is installed on servers. 


In a stand-alone system, when the user types a command that requests the computer to perform a task, the request goes over the computer's local bus to the computer's CPU. For example, if you want to see a directory listing on one of the local hard disks, the CPU interprets and executes the request and then displays the results in a directory listing in the window. 

In a network environment, however, when a user initiates a request to use a resource that exists on a server in another part of the network, the request has to be forwarded, or redirected, away from the local bus, out onto the network, and from there to the server with the requested resource. This forwarding is performed by the re-director. 


A re-director processes forwarding requests. Depending on the networking software, this re-director is sometimes referred to as the "shell" or the "requester." The re-director is a small section of code in the NOS that:  

  • Intercepts requests in the computer. 
  • Determines if the requests should continue in the local computer's bus or be redirected over the network to another server. 
Re-director activity originates in a client computer when the user issues a request for a network resource or service. The user's computer is referred to as a client because it is making a request of a server. The request is intercepted by the re-director and forwarded out onto the network. The server processes the connection requested by client re-directors and gives them access to the resources they request. In other words, the server services or fulfills the request made by the client.  


If you need to access a shared directory, and you have permission to access it, your operating system will usually provide several choices for how to access the directory. For example, with Windows NT you could use Windows Explorer to connect to the network drive using the Network Neighborhood icon. You can also map to the drive. (Drive mapping is the assignment of a letter or name to a disk drive so that the operating system or network server can identify and locate it.) To map to the drive, right-click the directory icon from the Network Neighborhood; a dialog box will prompt you to assign an available letter of the alphabet as a drive designator, such as G:. Thereafter, you can refer to the shared directory on the remote computer as G:, and the re-director will locate it. The re-director also keeps track of which drive designators are associated with which network resources.  


Re-directors can send requests to peripherals as well as to shared directories. The request is redirected away from the originating computer and sent over the network to the target. In this case, the target is the print server for the requested printer. With the re-director, LPT1 or COM1 can refer to network printers instead of local printers. The re-director will intercept any print job going to LPT1 and forward it out of the local machine to the specified network printer.  

Using the re-director, users don't need to be concerned with the actual location of data or peripherals, or with the complexities of making a connection. To access data on a network computer, for example, a user need only type the drive designator assigned to the location of the resource, and the re-director determines the actual routing.


With server software, users at other machines, the client computers, can share the server's data and peripherals including printers, plotters, and directories. When a user is requesting a directory listing on a shared remote hard disk, the request is forwarded by the re-director on to the network, where it is passed to the file and print server containing the shared directory. The request is granted, and the directory listing is provided


Sharing is the term used to describe resources made publicly available for access by anyone on the network. Most NOSs not only allow sharing, but also determine the degree of sharing. Options for sharing include:  
  • Allowing different users different levels of access to the resources. 
  • Coordinating access to resources to make sure that two users do not use the same resource at the same time. 
For example, an office manager wants everyone on the network to be familiar with a certain document (file), so she shares the document. However, she controls access to the document by sharing it in such a way that:  

  • Some users will be able only to read it. 
  • Some users will be able to read it and make changes in it. 


Network operating systems also allow a network administrator to determine which people, or groups of people, will be able to access network resources. A network administrator can use the NOS to:  

  • Create user privileges, tracked by the network operating system, that indicate who gets to use the network. 
  • Grant or deny user privileges on the network. 
  • Remove users from the list of users that the network operating system tracks. 
To simplify the task of managing users in a large network, NOSs allow for the creation of user groups. By classifying individuals into groups, the administrator can assign privileges to the group. All group members have the same privileges, which have been assigned to the group as a whole. When a new user joins the network, the administrator can assign the new user to the appropriate group, with its accompanying rights and privileges. 


Some advanced NOSs include management tools to help administrators keep track of network behavior. If a problem develops on the network, management tools can detect signs of trouble and present these in a chart, or other, format. With these tools, the network manager can take corrective action before the problem halts the network.  

In planning a network, the choice among network operating systems can be narrowed significantly if you first determine which network architecture—client/server or peer-to-peer—best meets your needs. This choice can often be made by deciding which kinds of security are called for. Server-based networking allows you to include security capabilities well beyond those available to a peer-to-peer network. If security is not an issue, a peer-to-peer networking environment might be appropriate. After your network security needs have been identified, your next step is to determine the kinds of interoperability necessary for the network as a whole. Each NOS addresses interoperability in different ways, so you should keep your own interoperability needs in mind when evaluating each NOS. If your network choice is peer-to-peer, your options for security and interoperability will be diminished because of the limitations inherent in that architecture. If your network choice is server-based, further assessment is needed to determine whether interoperability will be dealt with as a service on the network server or as a client application on each networked computer. Server-based interoperability is easier to manage because, like other services, it is centrally located; client-based interoperability requires installation and configuration at each computer, making interoperability much more difficult to manage.  
It is not uncommon to find both methods—a network service on the server and network client applications at each computer—in a single network. For example, a Net-Ware server is often implemented with a service for Apple computers, whereas Microsoft Windows network interoperability is achieved with a network client application at each personal computer. When choosing a network operating system, first determine the networking services that will be required. Standard services include security, file sharing, printing and messaging; additional services include interoperability support for connections to other operating systems. For any given NOS, determine which interoperability services or networking clients are best implemented to suit your needs. The major server-based network operating systems are Microsoft Windows NT 4 and Windows 2000 Server, Windows 2008 server, windows 2012 server and Nov-ell Net-Ware 3.x, 4.x and 5.x. The principal peer-to-peer network operating systems are Apple-talk, Windows 95 and 98, UNIX (including Linux and Solaris).


Windows Server 2008 R2 is the latest version of Microsoft’s Windows Server operating system.

To use Windows Server 2008 you need to meet the following hardware requirements: 
Processor
Minimum: 1GHz (x86 processor) or 1.4GHz (x64 processor) • Recommended: 2GHz or faster Note: An Intel Itanium 2 processor is required for Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems
Memory
• Minimum: 512MB RAM • Recommended: 2GB RAM or greater • Maximum (32-bit systems): 4GB (Standard) or 64GB (Enterprise and Data-center) • Maximum (64-bit systems): 32GB (Standard) or 2TB (Enterprise, Data-center and Itanium-based Systems)
Available Disk Space
Minimum: 10GB • Recommended: 40GB or greater Note: Computers with more than 16GB of RAM will require more disk space for paging, hibernation, and dump files
Drive
DVD-ROM drive
Display and Peripherals
• Super VGA (800 x 600) or higher-resolution monitor • Keyboard • Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device


If you are currently running:
You can upgrade to:
Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2)
Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
Windows Server 2003 Enterprise Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2)
Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Enterprise Edition
Windows Server 2003 Data-center Edition (R2, Service Pack 1 or Service Pack 2)
Full Installation of Windows Server 2008 Data-center Edition

Step 1: 
Insert the appropriate Windows Server 2008 installation media into your DVD drive. If you don’t have an installation DVD for Windows Server 2008, you can download one for free from Microsoft’s Windows 2008 Server Trial website. 

Step 2:  Reboot the computer

Step 3: When prompted for an installation language and other regional options, make your selection and press Next. 

Step 4:  Next, press Install Now to begin the installation process. 

Step 5: Product activation is now also identical with that found in Windows Vista. Enter your Product ID in the next window, and if you want to automatically activate Windows the moment the installation finishes, click next. If you do not have the Product ID available right now, you can leave the box empty, and click next. You will need to provide the Product ID later, after the server installation is over. Press No. 

Step 6: Because you did not provide the correct ID, the installation process cannot determine what kind of Windows Server 2008 license you own, and therefore you will be prompted to select your correct version in the next screen, assuming you are telling the truth and will provide the correct ID to prove your selection later on. 

Step 7: If you did provide the right Product ID, select the Full version of the right Windows version you’re prompted, and click Next. 

Step 8: Read and accept the license terms by clicking to select the checkbox and pressing next. 

Step 9: In the “Which type of installation do you want?” window, click the only available option – Custom (Advanced)

Step 10:  In the “Where do you want to install Windows?”, if you’re installing the server on a regular IDE hard disk, click to select the first disk, usually Disk 0, and click Next. 

Step 11: The installation now begins, and you can go and have lunch. Copying the setup files from the DVD to the hard drive only takes about one minute. However, extracting and uncompressing the files takes a good deal longer. After 20 minutes, the operating system is installed. The exact time it takes to install server core depends upon your hardware specifications. Faster disks will perform much faster installs. Windows Server 2008 takes up approximately 10 GB of hard drive space. 

Step 12:  Then the server reboots you’ll be prompted with the new Windows Server 2008 type of login screen. PressCTRL+ALT+DEL to log in. 

Step 13: Click on Other User. 

Step 14:  The default Administrator is blank, so just type Administrator and press Enter. 

Step 15: You will be prompted to change the user’s password. You have no choice but to press Ok.

Step 16:  In the password changing dialog box, leave the default password blank (duh, read step #15…), and enter a new, complex, at-least-7-characters-long new password twice. A password like “top-secret” is not valid (it’s not complex), but one like “T0pSecreT!” sure is. Make sure you remember it. 

Step 17:  Someone thought it would be cool to nag you once more, so now you’ll be prompted to accept the fact that the password had been changed. Press Ok. 

Step 18: Finally, the desktop appears and that’s it, you’re logged on and can begin working. You will be greeted by an assistant for the initial server configuration, and after performing some initial configuration tasks, you will be able to start working. 


In computer networking, a work-group is a collection of computers on a local area network (LAN) that share common resources and responsibilities. Work-groups provide easy sharing of files, printers and other network resources. Being a peer-to-peer (P2P) network design, each work-group computer may both share and access resources if configured to do so. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems supports assigning of computers to named work-groups. Macintosh networks offer a similar capability through the use of Apple-talk zones. The Open Source software package Samba allows UNIX and Linux systems to join existing Windows work-groups. 


In a Windows environment, a user profile is a record of user-specific data that define the user's working environment. The record can include display settings, application settings, and network connections. What the user sees on his or her computer screen, as well as what files, applications and directories they have access to, is determined by how the network administrator has set up the user's profile. Roaming profiles are user profiles that are stored in the server. Each time the user logs on, their profile is requested and sent to whatever machine makes the request. This allows the user to move from machine to machine and still maintain a consistent personal working environment. Network administrators find roaming profiles to be especially beneficial in a work or learning environment when more than one user shares the same computer, or when a user moves from place-to-place during the course of a workday.                         

Steps To create User Account in windows server 2008 

Step: 1 

Click on Administrative Tools in your Start menu next to the Control Panel link in server 2008 operating System

Step 2:  

After get in to the Active directory users & computers, expand the domain name (Ex: www.skilldevelopmentglobal.blogspot.com) in which we want to create the user, and right-click on the user folder.

Step 3:  

The New Object user box will pop up and require you to put in the user’s name and create the user logon. You’ll need to use a standard method of creating user logon names, as this will cause much less confusion in the future. If you have a small network, you may want to just stick to using the first initial and last name because it’s shorter. If you anticipate that your network will grow quite large, the standard advice is to use the full first and last name separated by a period, as we’ve done below.

Step 4

Now you have to give the user an initial password, and make sure to have them change it as soon as they first logon. 

Step 5: 

After gets finished, you’ll get a nice summary of our work. 

Step 6: 

After that When we go back to the Users folder in the domain, we can see our newly created user. 

Step 7: 

Once you’ve created a user, there are many things that we’ll need to do with them in order for them to be useful, like adding permissions and security groups. 


NTFS provides two levels of file and folder permissions which can be used to control user and group access. These are basic permissions and special permissions. In essence, basic permissions are nothing more than pre-configured sets of special permissions. This section will look at basic permissions and the next will focus on special permissions and how they are used to create basic permissions. The current basic permissions for a file or folder may be viewed by right clicking on the object in Windows Explorer, selecting Properties and then choosing the Security tab. At the top of the security properties panel is a list of users and groups for which permissions have been configured on the selected file or folder. Selecting a group or user from the list causes the basic permissions for that user to be displayed in the lower half of the dialog. Any permissions which are grayed out in the permission list are inherited from the parent folder.  
The basic permission settings available differ slightly between files and folders. The following table lists the basic folder permissions supported by Windows Server 2008 on 

NTFS volumes: 

Full Control
Permission to read, write, change and delete files and sub-folders.
Modify
Permission to read and write to files in the folder, and to delete current folder.
List Folder Contents
Permission to obtain listing of files and folders and to execute files.
Read and Execute
Permission to list files and folders and to execute files.
Write
Permission to create new files and folders within selected folder.
Read
Permission to list files and folders.


Basic file and folder permissions are really just pre-packaged collections of special permissions. Special permissions provide a much more fine grained approach to defining Permissions on files and folders than is offered by basic permissions. The current special permissions configured on a file or folder can be viewed and modified by right clicking on the object in Windows Explorer, selecting Properties, clicking on the Security tab of the properties dialog and pressing the advanced button. This will display the Permissions page of the Advanced Security Settings dialog which contains a list of users and groups for which permissions have been defined. Click on Edit to access the editable view of the permissions. Select a user or group from the list and click on the Edit... once again to display the Permission Entry for the selected user or group for this file or folder.  


With all the different permission options Provided by NTFS on Windows Server 2008, it can be difficult to determine how permissions may accumulate to affect a particular user or group for any given file or folder. 

In order to make this task a little easier, Windows provides a feature known as Effective Permissions which will list the cumulative permissions for a user or group. To access this feature, right click on the required file or folder in Windows Explorer, select Properties and then select the Security tab in the resulting properties dialog. Within the security panel, click on Advanced and select the Effective Permissions tab in the Advanced Security Settings dialog. The next step is to specify the user or group for which the effective permissions are to be calculated. To achieve this, click on the Select button and use the Select User or Group dialog to specify or search for a particular user or group and then click on OK. The effective permissions for the chosen user or group will subsequently be displayed. 

One this Advanced security settings for accounts box comes choose the effective permission you wants to provide, then press apply & ok. 
Windows sever 2012 installation guide 

Step 1: 

Insert the appropriate Windows Server 2012 installation media into your DVD drive. If you don’t have an installation DVD for Windows Server 2012, you can download one for free from Microsoft’s Windows 2012 Server Trial website. 

Step 2:  Reboot the computer. 

**Note: Please make sure that first boot device would be your DVD drive. If it is not, do it from BIOS setting. 

Step 3:  

Press ENTER to boot from DVD. 

Step 4: 

Take the defaults on the Language screen, and click Next. 

Step 5:  

Click Install now on the install screen. 

Step 6:  

Click the second line item for the GUI. The default install is now Server Core. Then click next. 

Step 7:  

Read License Agreement, Turn on Checkbox “I accept the license terms,” and then click Next.

Step 8:  

Click Custom: Install Windows only (Advanced). 

Step 9:  

The disk you are using should be listed. If not, you will need to Load driver. Select the disk you will be installing on. If you do not want to change drive options (optional), Click Next. If you want to use Dual boot using Native Boot to VHD (Boot2VHD),

Step 10:  

[Optional:] Click drive options; then you can create custom partitions.

11. [Optional:] Add a drive using Native Boot To Vhd: SHIFT-F10 to open a command prompt window; Find installation drive (dir c:, dir d:, dir e:, etc). Disk-part to open the Disk Partition Utility (the first four lines below are all the same command and must run on the same line, separated here to make it easier to read).Create vdisk file=e:\BootDemo.vhd type=expandable maximum=40000. Attach disk. Exit.  

Step 12: 

Then Refresh 

Step 13: 

It will then start copying files. This will take a while (could be 20 mins or so depending on hardware performance).It will reboot a couple times (automatically). After the first reboot, it will no longer be running off of the DVD 

Step 14:  

In the Password box, enter a new password for this computer. It must meet complexity requirements. Re-enter the password in the second password box, and then click Finish. 

Step 15:  

Press Ctrl-Alt-Delete at the same time to get the login screen

Step 16:  

Enter password and press enter. The Desktop will be displayed and Server Manager will be opened automatically.

Step 17:  

Pressing Windows Key on the keyboard will bring up the start screen (formerly known as Start Menu). If you Right-Click on Computer, you will see the new right-click menu is on the bottom of the screen instead of in a drop-down box. Select Properties.

Step 18:  

You will see that the System Properties screen looks almost identical to prior versions of windows. We can now change the computer name by clicking on Change Settings. 

Step 19:  

Type new computer name you would like to use and click OK. 

Step 20:  

Click OK on the information box. Click OK to allow a restart. 

Step 21:  

Then click Restart Now on the final dialog box. 

Step 22:  

When the computer restarts it will have the new name, just login. 

Create User Account in Server 2012 Domain Controller 

The process of creating user account in Windows Servers has been almost the same since Server 2008. After installing domain controller, creating organizational units and user accounts are the very first tasks. There are several methods to create user account in server 2012 domain controller.  

Step 1: Open AD Users and Computers Snap-in 

Open AD Users and Computers snap-in from Server Manager. You can also open AD Users and Computers snap-ins by typing dsa.msc on RUN program. You can open RUN application pressing [Windows Key] + [R] on keyboard. 

Step 2: Create an Organizational Unit

Organizational Unit or simply OU is a container object of AD domain which can hold users, computers, and other objects. Basically, you create user accounts and computers inside an OU. I will create an OU named Management. Right-click domain in AD users and Computers, choose New and click Organizational Unit. 

Type Management to name the OU. Check the Protect container from accidental deletion option. This option will protect this object from accidental deletion. 

Step 3: 

Create New User Right-click the Management OU, click New and click User. Now type the user information. Type the first name and last name. Here user logon name is the name that the user will use to actually log in the computer in the network. So when user tries to log in, he will type sjobs@mustbegeek.com or mustbegeek\sjobs on username field. Now click next. 
Now type the password. Check user must change password at next logon. The user will be forced to change the password when user logs in. Click Next Review the user configuration and click Finish.
You have successfully created a user account. You can open the properties of the user account to tweak settings. Once the advanced has been completed, click on apply then ok. 


1) Create a new user in server 2008 
2) Give user permission in server 2008 
3) Create a new user in server 2012 
4) Create file in user computer & access it from server computer by network sharing methods. 
5) Provide file & folder permission to the user under domain. 



a. Windows 3.1  
b. Windows 95  
c. Windows 2000  
d. Windows NT 


a. Open source  
b. Microsoft  
c. Windows  
d. Mac 


a. Virtual space  
b. Virtual computers  
c. Virtual device  
d. None 


a. DOS  
b. Windows  
c. Unix  
d. Linux 


a. Windows server 2003  
b. Windows server 2008 
 c. Windows server 2012  
d. Windows server NX  


a. Owner  
b. Permission  
c. Editing  
d. Auditing  


a. Windows server enterprise  
b. Windows server core  
c. Windows server prime  
d. None of the above 

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