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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Introduction of Layers

The layers in computers can be defined as sheets of acetate stacked one on top of the other. When we open an image in Photoshop it automatically gets placed in layer or layers as per the mode it has been saved.  
INTRODUCTION OF LAYERSLayers allow you to make changes to an image without altering your original image data. You might store photographs or elements of photographs on separate layers, later to combine them into one composite image. A new image in Photoshop has a single layer. This layer is called the background layer. You cannot change the position of the background layer. You can draw, edit, paste, and reposition elements on one layer without disturbing the others. Until you combine, or merge, the layers, each layer remains independent. This means you can experiment freely with graphics. Photoshop supports normal layers and text layers. You can apply sophisticated effects to layers using masks and layer styles.  
When you transfer a layered image between Photoshop and its partner program Image Ready, all layers, layer masks, layer clipping paths, layer styles, and adjustment layers are preserved. 


Using the Channels Palette 
o The Channels palette displays the different channels of the color mode used in a page. Each Channel is an independent gray-scale version of the colors that an image is comprised of. This allows you to edit each channel separately.  o From the main menu, choose Window > Channels to view the Channels palette: 


Using the Paths Palette

o To have anything listed in the Paths palette, you need to create vector graphics. o Your vector graphics will be listed as a work path, which can be duplicated and deleted o To save a work path, double-click the path in the Paths palette. And give it a name. o You can have multiple paths and create new ones o To do so, click on ‘Create New Path’ and draw your objects o Keep in mind that when you first start working with vector graphics Adobe Photoshop creates a work path. 

Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygons—all of which are based on mathematical expressions—to represent images in computer graphics. Vector graphics are based on vectors (also called paths)


  • The Layer Blending Modes control how the layers will blend with each other. 
  • In the Layers Palette, click the Add a Layer Style icon to open a pop-up menu, and choose Blending Options: 
  • Blending Modes and their features: 
  • Normal  

o This is the default mode.  


o This mode works best with the paintbrush tool 
  • Multiply o Looks at the color information in each channel and multiplies the base color by the blend color.  

o The result color is always a darker color. 

Looks at each channel’s color information and multiplies the inverse of the blend and base colors. 

The result color is always a lighter color. 

The Overlay blend mode both multiplies dark areas and screens light areas at the same time, so dark areas become darker and light areas become lighter. 

o Darkens or lightens the colors, depending on the blend color. 

o Hard Light drastically lightens or darkens the base image depending on the brightness of the blend color.  
o Vivid light is another blending mode that lightens or darkens according to the brightness of the blend color, but the result is even more intense than Soft Light and Hard Light. 

o The Pin Light blending mode replaces colors depending on the brightness of the blend color. 

o This mode will compare brightness values in the base and blend colors, and subtracts whichever is the lighter. The Difference blending mode highlights the differences between the blend layer and the base layer. 

o The same as the Difference mode, but with a softer effect. 


  • Drop shadow: To add a shadow that falls behind the contents on the layer. 
  • Inner shadow: To add a shadow that falls just inside the edges of the layer contents.  
  • Outer Glow and Inner Glow: To add glows that emanate from the outside or inside edges of the layer contents.  
  • Bevel and Emboss: To add various combinations of highlights and shadows to a layer. 
  • Satin: To apply shading to the interior of a layer that reacts to the shape of the layer, typically creating a satiny finish.  
  • Color, Gradient, and Pattern Overlay: To overlay a color, gradient or pattern on a layer. 
  • Stroke: To outline the object on the current layer using color, gradient or a pattern. 

We will learn how to use layers if we take on a simple task in Photoshop. We are going to create the following graphic using layers: 
  • Create a new document 
  • Select a Dull Green Foreground Color. To do this, click your foreground color, and use the color slider to find a suitable color. 
  • Click OK to confirm the color value you’ve picked. Now press Alt + Backspace. Your entire background layer should be filled with the foreground color. 
  • To create a new layer, click the “New Layer” icon. As you can see, a new layer “Layer 1” has been created. 
  • You can rename this layer by clicking the name of it twice, and entering whatever name you desire. While this layer is selected you will be working on this layer alone in the Photoshop document. 
  • We will draw the different green valleys in separate layers through pen tool. 
  • Let’s take a look at one more useful feature in the layers palette. Click the New Group icon at the bottom of the layers palette (the one shaped like a folder).  
  • Groups function in a similar manner to a folder. You can put multiple layers inside of a group, and then when you select the group, you’re able to adjust the opacity, blending mode, and position of all those layers at the same time. 
  • Drag your separate green valley layers inside of the group and give a name of the created group. 
  • Create a separate layer and Select the Brush Tool from the toolbox. Adobe Photoshop already has some preset brushes which we are going to use to create the grass in our graphic.  
  • In the brush tool’s Option Bar, open the Brush Preset Picker (Small down arrow to the right of the currently selected “Brush”). Scroll a ways down the list, and select a grass brush tool as per your choice. 
  • Once you have a good foreground and background color selected, start painting with your brush in the working image area on your new layer. Hold down the Mouse Button to use the brush tool. 
  • Create a separate layer for creating the Sun. Select elliptical marquee tool and select that place where you want to create the sun. Draw and select yellow foreground color. Press alt + backspace for filling the color. 
  • For clouds we need to create separate layers just like valleys.  
  • Create clouds with pen tool using separate layer for each cloud. 
  • Now create a group for cloud layers and give it a name. 
  • You can also type anything into your graphics. Lets type here Sun set.  
  • Select the Horizontal Type Tool from the toolbox. Set your Foreground Color to Black. Click anywhere in your working image area to begin typing. Set the Font to Arial, the font weight to Bold, the text size to 60 pt, and the anti-aliasing to Crisp. As you can see, the Type Tool has created a new Type Layer in your layers palette for the text. 

The first thing we need to do is position our Type Layer below the Grass Layer so that the Grass will appear in front of it. In your layers palette, click and drag your Type Layer below the Grass layer. 

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