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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Image adjustment options and image editing

COLOR CORRECTIONIn Photoshop we can access Adjustment commands through the image menu. These commands are useful for various types of color corrections. We have to choose the commands according to the adjustment required. 





The Levels dialog box lets us correct the tonal range of an image which represent the amount of contrast in the image and is determined by the image’s distribution of pixels, ranging from the darkest pixels to the lightest pixels.  
Auto levels will automatically shift the darkest pixels to black and the lightest pixels to white, the most common approach to contrast adjustment. Auto levels can greatly improve contrast in dark or shadowy images. 
Auto contrast command adjusts the overall contrast and mixture of colors in an image automatically. 

Auto color looks for the darkest and lightest points in the image, and balances out the colors. But it also forces the midpoint to a neutral gray, for more natural-looking photographic images. This command works only in RGB mode.
Like the levels dialog box, the curves dialog box lets us adjust the entire tonal range of an image. With curves we can adjust any point. 
The color balance command changes the overall mixture of colors in an image for generalized color correction. Shadows, Mid-tones, or Highlights help in selecting the tonal range on which we want to focus the changes.  
Brightness/Contrast command lets us make simple adjustments to the tonal range of an image. This command makes the same adjustment to every pixel in the image. The brightness/Contrast command does not work with individual channels and is not recommended for high-end output 
The Hue/Saturation command lets us adjust the hue, saturation, and brightness of a specific color component in an image or simultaneously adjust all the colors in an image. 
The Desaturate, Invert, Equalize, Threshold, and Posterize commands change colors or brightness values in an image but are typically used for enhancing color and producing special effects rather than for color correction.  
The invert command inverts the colors in an image. This command is used to make a positive black – and – white image negative or to make a positive from a scanned black-and-white negative. When we invert and image, the brightness value of each pixel in the channels is converted to the inverse value.  
The Equalize command redistributes the brightness values of the pixels in an image so that they more evenly represent the entire range of brightness levels. We might use the Equalize command when a scanned image appears darker than the original and we want to balance the values to produce a lighter image.  
Converts color images to high-contrast, black and white images. We can specify a certain level as a threshold. All pixels lighter than the threshold are converted to white, all pixels darker are converted to black. The Threshold command is useful for determining the lightest and darkest areas of an image.  
It lets us specify the number of tonal levels (or brightness values) for each channel in an image and then maps pixels to the closest matching level.  
Photoshop’s Replace Color adjustment is a quick and efficient way to swap one color for another. Here we have two images. We’ll change the color of the sky and water waves into pink color. 
Select the first image which is sea image. Start by going to Image > Adjustments > Replace Color. Choose the eyedropper with the plus sign to add to the selection. Tap on any areas of pink. 
Give fuzziness value between 180 to 195. Choose the selection option in the screen. The Hue value should be 160 to 170. Saturation should be 55 to 60. Give lightness value as per your need. Click OK after finishing all the settings.   
  • Channel Mixer command:  
 The Channel Mixer in Photoshop actually does what its name implies — it mixes color channels. It also allows you to create intense special effects. Go to Image > Adjustments > Channel Mixer. You can Source channel values as per your need for special effects. 
  • Gradient Map command:  
It is an adjustment so you can find it on the Adjustment menu and you can also apply it using an Adjustment Layer. It applies a gradient of color to your image depending on the tones in the image. So, where the image is darker the tones at the left of the gradient are applied and where the image is lighter the tones at the right of the gradient are applied. 
  • Shadow/Highlight command: 
Shadow/Highlight command quickly became a favorite with photographers and photo retouchers for its amazing ability to bring out details in the shadow and highlight areas of an image that were simply too dark or too light to see. In fact, the Shadow/Highlight command proved to be so good at bringing out image detail, many Photoshop users began applying it to all of their images.  
To access the Shadow/Highlight command, go up to the Image menu at the top of the screen, choose Adjustments, and then choose Shadow/Highlight from the list: This brings up the Shadow/Highlight dialog box. The default Shadows amount is 50%, while Highlights is set to 0%. Now you can change the values of Shadows and Highlights as per your requirement.  
  •  Variations command: 
The Variations command lets us adjust the color balance, contrast, and saturation of an image by showing you thumbnails of alternatives.  
  • To use the Variations command: 
          Select Image > Adjustments > Variations  
The two thumbnails at the top of the dialog box show the original selection (Original) and the selection with its currently selected adjustments (Current Pick). When the dialog box is first opened, these two images are the same. As we make adjustments, the current pick image changes to reflect the change.  
  • Select the option that has to be adjusted 
  • Select Highlights, mid-tones & shadows depending upon the part of the image to be modified  
  • To adjust the color and brightness, click on the appropriate thumbnail. The color would be added to the original image. 
Photo Editing: 
  • Photo editing was at one time a controversial step for photographers. It’s generally accepted now that even the best images can benefit from a few basic enhancements with photo editing software. Now we will learn how to edit a photo in Adobe Photoshop.  
  • Once the Photoshop application has launched, click File Menu > Open and locate the photo on your computer. Before you do anything else, click Image Menu > Duplicate to make a copy of the original. Add the word "edit" to the end of the document name so you will know later that this is not the original.  
  • It is always a good idea to work with a duplicate version of the file so you do not accidentally save over the original. 
  • Now we will edit this image. You can see that skin of the girl is not smooth and it’s got blemishes. So we can get rid of these by Photoshop tools. Before that we need to learn about the Background layer of Photoshop.  
  • Photoshop won't let us move the contents of the Background layer with the Move Tool because the layer is locked in place. The Background layer doesn't support transparency, so there's no way to delete anything on the layer. And the Background layer must always remain the bottom layer in the Layers panel. We can't drag it above 
  • Since the Background layer's whole purpose is to be the background of the document, each of these rules makes sense. Yet as with most rules, there's ways around them for times when we need to break them. In this case, there's an easy way around all of them at once! All we need to do is rename the Background layer to something other than Background! To rename the Background layer, you need to go up to the Layer menu at the top of the screen, choose New, and then choose Layer from Background.  
  •  A faster way, though, is to simply double-click directly on the word Background in the Layers panel 
  • Either way opens the New Layer dialog box where we can enter a new name for the layer. The default name of "Layer 0" works fine. Any name other than Background will work, so unless you have something specific you want to name the layer, simply click OK to accept Layer 0 as the new name and close out of the dialog box 
  • And just by renaming it, we've converted the Background layer into a normal layer, which means we're no longer bound by any of the rules. We can move the contents of the layer with the Move Tool, we can delete anything on the layer and replace it with transparency, and we can freely move the layer above or below other layers.  
  • Now as we have converted background layer as a normal layer we will start editing the image in that layer. First we will zoom in by ctrl + and select the area. 
  • Spot healing brush tool is exactly like it sounds, this tool will make everything look prettier! If you have a spot, blemish, or a mole this tool will remove it instantly. It can also be used as a pimple remover. So, first we will use Spot healing brush tool to remove the blemishes. You need to just click on the blemished skin area to use the Spot healing brush tool properly.  
  • See how the image has changed after using Spot healing brush tool. Same way we will use the tool to remove the neck and other spots.  
  • Now we will edit the girl’s cheeks in the image as she has very thin cheeks. We will use Liquify tool.  
  • Select the layer 0 and press Ctrl + J to copy or duplicate the layer. Go to filter menu and then select liquify.  
  • Select bloat tool to make cheeks fuller.Bloat tool helps to make things larger.  
  • Size of Brush size,density,pressure and rate will be very low. 
  • After completing adjustments press ok. 
  • Now again go to filter menu,and select Noise > Median > Radius will be 1 
  • Press ok.  
  • Select Layer 0 Copy and keep its opacity to 95%. 
  • Now we will change the eye color: 

o First press control J to copy or duplicate the layer 0. 
o Zoom in the eye area 
o With the help of Pen tool draw the eye ball  
o Then press Ctrl + Enter. Your eye ball will get selected. 
o Go to Image menu > Adjustments > Hue/Saturation  
o Now you can change the eye color with preview. 
o Press ok after eye color adjustments.  
o Finally press control + D to deselect. 
o Now select the second eye with the help of Pen tool as shown before to change the color of eye. Change the both eye color in the same layer. 

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