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Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  

Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Filters in Adobe Photoshop

  • There still remains one action menu that we have not yet used, and that is the Filter menu. I will discuss the main menu items and some of the more useful sub-menu items and explain ways to use them to obtain often surprising results.  
  • The very top item on the menu with the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + F is simply a repetition of the last filter that you used. It will change every time you use a different filter. This is a convenient function because sometimes the same filter must be applied multiple times in succession to attain the desired result. 
  • Extract is a function that helps you extract an object from the background. It is similar to the Lasso, except that it provides far more precision. It is generally used when the outline of an object is difficult to trace by hand, particularly in cases of animals. 

o Open the image from which you wish to extract an object and activate the Extract filter. I want extract this Yellow rose from this image. 

  • Go to Filter menu and choose extract option. Then from the ‘extract’ dialog box select Edge highlighter tool to highlight the edges of the flower. The key is to use a relatively thin line on clear edges and a thick line on edges that are more difficult to Recognize or find out. o When you've finished highlighting the edge, the image should look something like the picture on the left. Use the paint bucket Fill icon and click on the inside of the highlighted area to show which part you want to keep o The resulting extracted flower should look like the picture on the left 
  • Liquify tool o The Liquify filter may be one of the most commonly used filters in Adobe Photoshop. The Liquify filter allows us to distort the pixels in a given image without losing quality.  o From photo retouching, to artistic effects, the Liquify filter is a powerful tool for every Photoshop user. This filter allows us to push, pull, rotate, reflect, pucker, and bloat the pixels of any image. Today, I will show you the basics of this filter. Go to ‘Filter’ menu and choose Liquify option. 

 o Once the filter is open, you'll see a window with the following areas: 

  • Toolbar, located on the left of the screen, there you'll find the following tools: Forward Warp, Reconstruct, Twirl, Pucker, Bloat, Push, Mirror, Turbulence, Freeze / Thaw Mask, Hand and Zoom. 
  • The actual image or the object you are editing. 
  • The Options Panel, where you'll find the following options: Brush, Reconstruct, Mask and View. Each group of options controls the behavior of the active tool. 

o Tools: 

The most basic tool that you may use is the Forward Warp, basically pushes the pixels of the image forward as you drag. You can control the amount of pixels pushed by changing the brush size in the Brush Options on the right panel. The larger the brush the more pixels will be pushed forward. Once you apply this effect, you must click on the OK button on the right panel to commit the changes.

This value controls how will be the brush feathers on the edge, by default a Liquify effect is stronger in the center of the brush and softer on the edges, you can increase the Brush Density value from 0 to 100. The larger the value, the stronger the effect on the brush tip's edges. 

This value controls the speed at which distortions are made when you drag the brush. This value can be set from 0 to 100, being 0 the lowest pressure and 100 the highest. Using a low brush pressure makes changes occur more slowly, so it’s easier to stop them at exactly the right moment. 

This filter rotates pixels clockwise as you click or drag, in order to Twirl pixels counterclockwise, just hold the Option (Alt) key while you're clicking. 

The Pucker Tool moves pixels towards the center of the brush area and the Bloat Tool moves pixels away from the center as you click or drag on the image. 

This tool moves pixels to the left when you drag the tool up and to the right when you drag it down. You can also drag clockwise around an object to increase its size, or drag counterclockwise to decrease its size. To invert the direction (left or right) hold down the Option (Alt) key as you drag. 

  • Push Tool (O) Horizontal: Moves pixels up when you drag the tool left to right, and down if you drag right to left. 
  • Mirror Tool (M): This tool works exactly like a mirror. 
  • Turbulence (T):  Smoothly scrambles the pixels while dragging. With this tool you might find the Turbulent Jitter value very handy; a high number here means a lot of turbulence. 
  • Masks - Freeze and Thaw Masks: You can protect some areas of the image from changes by using a Freeze Mask. In the Tool bar, click on the Freeze Mask button and paint the areas you want to keep unchanged. The Thaw mask works just like a mask eraser. Use this tool like the other Liquify tools; you can control the brush's Size, Density and Pressure. After Masking an area and applying it, the masked area will remain unchanged. 
  • Reconstruct All:  After distorting, you may need to reconstruct some areas here and there. There are many creative ways to reconstruct the distortions with the Liquify filter. The simplest way to do this is by clicking the Restore All Button on the Reconstruct Options Panel.  See To reconstruct the distortions of the first picture, we have clicked Restore All button on the Reconstruct options panel 
  • View Mesh and Masks The Mesh is a bi-dimensional grid than can be shown or hidden in the View Options Panel. You can increase or decrease the Mesh Size, and change its color. The Mesh and Masks can be shown or hidden from this panel and its color can be changed. Every distortion made with any of the previously mentioned tools can be saved as a Mesh, to do this, click on the Save Mesh button in the Options Panel. A saved Mesh can be opened and be re-applied to any other image by clicking on the Load Mesh button 
  • Applying Twirl Filter Tool  Saving the filter effect by selecting Save Mesh button By clicking on the Load Mesh button we have reapplied the saved Mesh to this new image. 
  • The Pattern Maker:  The Pattern Maker item takes a rectangular selection and samples the pixels in it to create a tile that can then be repeated as a pattern. This pattern can be saved to use later as a texture, or you can use it as an image, such as for the background of a web page. Saving the filter effect by selecting Save Mesh button By clicking on the Load Mesh button we have reapplied the saved Mesh to this new image. For example, a clipping from the yellow flower picture could be converted into a repeating pattern similar to the one shown (below). If you are not happy with the first pattern generated, you can keep generating more random patterns until you get to one that suits your needs.
  • Artistic:  This sub-menu allows you to simulate the effect of using artistic equipment and media such as colored pencils, pastels, and watercolors. Some examples of the effects are shown below. Plastic wrap filter is useful for giving objects in your image a watery, glassy, or even metallic shine. It can also be used to give objects a "gummy" appearance that's great for logos. You can also apply multiple filters at the same time.  
  • Blur: The Blur sub-menu does exactly what it says--it blurs your image. The three most important items on the menu are Gaussian Blur, which allows you to specify how many pixels to blur, Motion Blur, which causes "speed lines," and Radial Blur, which either swirls the picture in a circle (below) or makes lines radiating outward from a point.  
  • Brush Strokes: This is very similar to the Artistic sub-menu. Some of the possible results are shown below. 
  • Distort:  The Distort sub-menu warps and disrupts the image in a number of different ways. Some important examples are shown below:  Shear, in particular, is helpful when you want to warp an object to fit a specific curve, such as when you add a logo or pattern to something you want to appear three-dimensional. 
  • Noise:  The Noise sub-menu is used especially when repairing photographs. It helps to make small blemishes less noticeable. It can also add noise, which is convenient when combining filters to make patterns. The items of the Noise sub-menu are illustrated below: 
  • Pixelate:  The items on the Pixelate sub-menu distort the colors of the image by grouping areas of nearby pixels together into large blocks or dividing portions of the image into various shapes and sizes. Examples of this are shown below: 
  • Render:  This sub-menu allows sophisticated three-dimensional manipulation and lighting effects. The cloud filters, in particular, are extremely convenient when combining filters to make patterns. Samples of this sub-menu's functions are illustrated below: 
  • Sharpen:  This is another sub-menu often used for photo repair. It emphasizes the outlines of objects as determined by sharp differences in color or intensity. The items of the sub-menu are demonstrated below: 
  • Sketch:  This is another sub-menu designed to simulate artistic drawing techniques and media. Most of the items in the sub-menu rely heavily on the foreground and background colors. Some examples are shown below: 
  • Stylize:  This sub-menu distorts the image colors in extreme ways. It is very useful when designing patterns and logos. Samples of this sub-menu are illustrated below: 
  • Texture:  As the name suggests, this sub-menu applies a three-dimensional or other texture to the image, as shown below. If used creatively, these items can incredibly enhance your work. 
  • Video:  The items in this sub-menu can be applied to video and not still images.  Other:  This sub-menu allows various other functions (below). In particular, the Custom item lets you input values to design your own filter. 
  • Digimarc:  This allows you to embed or read an electronic "watermark" to signal that the image is your copyrighted property. 


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