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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Editing Selections and Removing Complex Backgrounds using Layer & Vector Mask in Adobe Photoshop


    EDITING SELECTION IN ADOBE PHOTOSHOP
  • It can be sometimes frustrating to draw a selection in exactly the right shape, size and location we need. Often, we click in the wrong spot to begin the selection, or we wish we had made it wider, taller, further to the left or right, or whatever the case may be, leading many Photoshop users, especially beginners, to undo the selection and try again, and again, and again until they finally get it right. 
  • Fortunately, there's no need to go through all that frustration because Photoshop makes it easy to move, resize and reshape selection outlines after we draw them using the Transform Selection command! 
  • Here’s an image which I have opened in Adobe Photoshop 
  • I want to select the area around the butterfly, so I'll grab the Rectangular Marquee Tool from Photoshop's Tools panel 
  • With the Rectangular Marquee Tool selected, I'll click somewhere in the top left corner of the area I want to select, then with my mouse button, I'll drag down to the bottom right corner of the area to draw my initial selection outline around the butterfly, releasing my mouse button when I'm done to complete the selection 
  • Unfortunately, if we look at my selection outline, we see that I didn't do a very good job with my initial attempt. Some of the butterfly is still extending out beyond the left and right edges of my selection. What many people would do in this case is undo the selection and try again, hoping they get it right the next time. But with the help of Transform Selection command we can solve this problem. 


  • Before we look at how to use Transform Selection, its important to note the difference between it and another similar yet very different command, Free Transform. Both are used to move, resize and reshape selections. The difference is that Free Transform affects the pixels inside the selection outline while Transform Selection affects only the selection outline itself.
  • I'll go up to the Edit menu in the Menu Bar along the top of the screen and choose Free Transform 
  • The Free Transform command places transform handles (little squares) around the selection, one in each corner and one on the top, bottom, left, and right. We can alter the shape and size of the selection by clicking on any of the handles and dragging them. 
  • Since the butterfly's wings are currently extending out beyond the left and right edges of my selection, I'll need to make my selection wider. Watch what happens, when I use Free Transform to drag the left side of the selection further towards the left  Since Free Transform affects the pixels inside a selection, all I've managed to do is stretch the image itself. The selection outline, which is what I wanted to resize, didn't move, and the butterfly's wing now extends even further outside my selection. Now lets select Transform Selection command.  
  • I'll press the Esc key on my keyboard to exit out of Free Transform and undo the change. To access the Transform Selection command, go up to the Select menu at the top of the screen and choose Transform Selection: 
  • The Transform Selection command also places the same handles around the selection, just like Free Transform did, but these handles affect the selection outline itself, not the pixels inside of it. I'll click on the left handle and drag it further towards the left, just as I did with Free Transform a moment ago. This time, I'm moving the left edge of the selection outline without moving the image. The butterfly's left wing now fits easily within my selection  I'll do the same thing with the right edge of the selection outline, extending it further to the right by dragging its handle 
  • I'll also click on the top handle and drag it upward to fit the top of the butterfly into the selection
  • You can move and rotate the selection outline as well using Transform Selection. To move it, simply click anywhere inside the selection outline. U will be to see this sign  .To rotate it, move the cursor outside the selection outline, then click and drag. Here, I've rotated the selection outline a few degrees counterclockwise. When you're done, press Enter and after that ctrl + J to quickly copy the selected area to its own layer. 
  • The selected area is copied to its own layer above the original image. After that I'll click on the Layer Styles icon at the bottom of the Layers panel 
  • I'll choose Stroke from the list of Layer Styles, which I can use to place a simple photo border around the selected area, giving me a "picture in picture" effect: 
  • I'll set the Size of my stroke to around 15 px (pixels) and change the Position to Inside, which will give my stroke sharp corners. Then I'll set my stroke color to white.  
  • I'll add a shadow to the selected area as well by clicking directly on the words Drop Shadow at the top of the list of layer styles along the left of the dialog box. I'll lower the Opacity down to around 60% so the shadow appears less intense, and I'll change its Angle to 120°. Finally, I'll set the Distance to 13 px and the Size of the shadow to 10 px: 
  • I'll click OK to exit out of the Layer Style dialog box, and we can see the white stroke and drop shadow now applied to the selected area in the document window: 
  • The butterfly now appears to be in its own photo within the larger image 
  • Finally, let's quickly convert the original image in the background to black and white. I'll click on the Background layer in the Layers panel to select it, then press Ctrl+J to duplicate the layer. Photoshop gives us lots of ways to convert images to black and white. I'll just desaturate the image by Image > Adjustments > Desaturate. 
  • Creating a copy of the Background layer, then desaturating the copy 
  • With the background now desaturated, here's my final "picture in picture" result 


  •  What is a Layer Mask? Layer Masks, put simply, are like a hidden layer that tells Photoshop where to “hide” the information in your chosen layer. 
  • The Simple Method: How to Use Layer Masks o Start with an image appropriate for background removal. 

o Make a copy of your background layer by right clicking on it in your Layers Panel. By default, it will rename your new layer to “Background copy.” Click OK. 

o Click the  to hide your original Background layer as shown below -  

o You can then click the  icon to create the blank mask on your layer. 

o Press  to select the Brush Tool. Right click somewhere in your image to adjust your brush hardness and size. The default “Hard Round” brush is a good setting for this, as well. Otherwise, note the 100% Hardness setting shown below: 

o Check your Foreground/Background colors before you do anything. Keep a foreground color of black and keep a background color of white. 

o Simply paint and all areas you paint over will vanish, masked away to the background. 

o Exactly how is this different than using the Eraser tool? Masks, as stated earlier, can be turned off or deleted, allowing users to return to their original image. Simply right click on the mask you’re working in in your layers panel. You’ll be given this contextual menu, where you can “Disable” your layer mask, delete it, or “Apply” it. 

o Once your most difficult areas are finished, you can use a larger brush to mask out the areas you don’t want. o Your image is complete and masked for using anywhere you want. Here’s an advanced method using vector masks. 

  • Lets use Vector Masks to Remove Backgrounds. Vector masks are not very different from Layer Masks, except that they use vector primitives to create their Alpha mask channels. To create these vector primitives, we’ll have to use the Pen tool to create a work path we can mask our layer with. Start by creating a copy of your background, as done in the previous method. 


Note: Vector graphics is the use of geometrical primitives such as points, lines, curves, and shapes or polygonsall of which are based on mathematical expressionsto represent images in computer graphics. 

o Press  to select the Pen tool. Simply draw your shapes around your object as best as you can. 

o Trace the entire object around and connect your last point to your first one to create an enclosed object. This is absolutely important and vital to the next steps. After completing drawing your shape, Press Direct selection tool, click anywhere on your image and right click. Choose Make selection. Make selection dialog box will appear .Click ok. After that click    on the layers panel to create a Vector Mask from your current Work Path.  

o Your active work path will become a Vector mask, and remove the background from your object with no additional steps! 

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