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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Editing Images using Wrap Tool, Clone Stamp tool, Sponge tool, Burn tool and Dodge tool

    EDITING IMAGES USING WRAP TOOL
  • Sometimes you want to put your picture on any object and that object would be in any shape and direction. Now we will learn how to utilize Photoshop's warp tool to manipulate different images. 
  • First of all you need a picture, the main picture around which you want to put your picture, so I’m using this picture which is a ‘CUP’ as main picture: 


o I want to put my picture in this Cup. So I am clicking and dragging through move tool my picture into the Cup image. 

o See the image is looking flat and it’s not at all looking good. We need to edit my image like as if it is engrave in the Cup. So, we will go to Edit menu >> Transform >> Warp option. 

o By using the shape handles I will adjust my picture according to the shape of the Cup as shown below: 

o I am going to grab this point and will drag it up so that it can match with the curve there.  

o I am going to grab this point and will drag it towards left 

o I have dragged this point up too and now I will grab the middle points down a little bit 

o I have dragged this point up too and now I will grab the middle points down a little bit 

o These handles will help the bottom part of the image to follow the Bottom cup curve 

o With the upper points arrow again I have adjusted my image curves. Press Enter after completing all the adjustments 

o The tone of my image is not matching with the Cup image. So, we need to adjust the image tones. So we need to change the blending mode to multiply. Use the Blur tool to smooth-out the edges of my placed image in the Cup. Use a soft brush with strength 80%. Now here is the final look of my image editing with warp tool. 

  • Lets learn how to edit an image using Dodge tool in Adobe Photoshop. 
  • Dodge tool will lighten colors in your photo. The more you use this tool in one area, the more it will become white. Makes a person's teeth or eyes whiter. 
  • Select Dodge tool from the tools palette 
  • Click and hold down on the icon, then select the "Dodge Tool" 
  •  Adjust the size of the brush and hardness as well. Make your brush size 20 to 30. 
  • Now we will edit this image with the help of Dodge tool. I want to make this person's teeth whiter. 
  • I have whitened this person’s teeth 

  • Lets learn how to edit an image using Burn tool in Adobe Photoshop. 
  • This tool will darken colors in your photo. The more you use this tool in one area, the closer it will get to black. 
  • Select Burn tool from the tools palette 
  • Click and hold down on the icon, then select the "Burn Tool" 
  • Adjust the size of the brush and hardness as well. Make your brush size 90 to 95 
  • Now we will edit this image with the help of Burn tool. I am going to make the Apple’s shade a little dark. In other words I want to make this apple 1 shade darker 
  • The Sponge Tool controls Saturation. Saturation refers to the amount of color in an image. An image with low saturation looks very monotone, while an over saturated images looks very colorful and artificial. There are times when you might want these effects in just particular areas, and not the entire image
  • There are two modes of sponge tools: Saturate and Desaturate mode. Desaturate mode dulls the colors, turning them gray. Saturate mode increases the color density, making them brighter.  
  • Here we have an image and now through Sponge tool lets highlight only the lips of the Model. 
  • First lets duplicate the background layer 
  • Change the blending mode to multiply 
  • Now go to Layer menu and select ‘Merge Down’ 
  • Select the Sponge tool from the tools palette and choose ‘Desaturate mode’ 
  • Adjust the size of the brush and hardness as well. Make your brush size 80 to 90. And it will be good if u choose a hard brush. So, here I have selected hard brush 
  • Here we are using the sponge tool brush all over the image except the Model’s lips. 
  • Image editing is done here. We have highlighted only the Model’s lips. Other areas of the image appearing here as grey color.  
  • Now we will make the image little lighter. To make the image little lighter go to image > Adjustments > Auto color. 

The Clone Stamp Tool paints with a sampled pixels of an image. 
  •  Here we have an image and we will edit this image through Clone Stamp tool.  
  • From the Toolbox, choose the Clone Stamp Tool 
  • In the Options bar, set the tool's tip size and hardness as we did it for the Dodge, Burn, Sponge tool earlier 
  • Point the cursor at the image area you want to paint with, hold down [Alt] key, then mouse-click. Release the key. You have just selected the source point for cloning. 
  • Paint with the copied pixels 
  • Alt + click to set a new source poin
  • Paint here. You will see third foot/leg of the Bird has appeared. But if you paint again on another part of the image bird’s leg will not appear   
  • In the options bar, deselect the “Aligned” mode (checked by default) 
  • Now we will paint here 
  • Every new stroke restarts cloning your image from the source point 

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