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Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  

Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Design principles and color theory

The Key Principles in Photoshop Design: The principles of design are applicable to all design disciplines including architecture, fashion, art, graphics, industrial poetry, writing and web. The design is to plan to fashion artistically or skillfully. The principles of design are tools used to format the elements of design.  
It is amusing to find out that a magnificent Photoshop design is a mere product of techniques that are distinct from each other. 
There are times, however, when beginners manifest a tendency to be too naive about graphic design. A lot of people treat Photoshop much like they would treat any word processor. They think that simply following Photoshop tutorials can make them great designers. What they tend to forget is the fact that learning Photoshop entails proper knowledge of the elements and principles of graphic design. 

o Balance 

o Rhythm 
o Emphasis 
o Unity 

o Balance: Balance is the equal distribution of visual weight. It is determined by the size, shade and depth of graphic and textual elements and how they interact within a piece. Color, value, size, shape and texture have something to do with balance. 

  • Symmetrical, or formal balance, is also known as mirror symmetry. Symmetrical balance is when elements are arranged evenly throughout the design. You can rarely find this kind in Photoshop tutorials as they are somewhat leaning to the uptight and conservative side of design. They do not show much of a designer's creativity as they value tradition and function. However, clients prefer symmetrical designs because they exude strength and stability. 

  • In asymmetrical balance the visual weight on each side of the axis is the same but the elements are different. They vary (in terms of size, placement, value, etc.) and so are not identical mirror images. Asymmetrical balance is informal and more interesting than symmetrical balance. Asymmetrical creates more contrast and variety. Or Asymmetrical balance is the arrangement of       different graphic elements on each side of the page regardless of their symmetry. The important thing is that the weight of these two objects is still well-balanced. 

  • A recurrence or repetition of one or more elements within a visual composition with the goal of creating harmony i.e. a rhythmic feeling. In visual arts it is the flow and movement of graphical element. It is a principle based on repetition. It is a distinct reputation of elements that are the same or slightly changed. Rhythmic reputation do not only occur in regards to shape and their arrangement by also in colors or textures. Progressive Rhythm is repetition of shape the changes in a very regular manner. Rhythm is also achieved when you progressively place a larger element to an even larger one. This connotes consistency and strength. Abrupt changes in size and spacing creates a more lively and exciting rhythm. 

    o Emphasis: Using proximity, color, and throwing something random in a pattern adds Emphasis creates a focal point in a design; it is how we bring attention to what is most important. Emphasis is what catches the eye and makes the viewer stop and look at the image. Without emphasis, without getting the viewer to look at the image, communication cannot occur. Emphasis can be created by contrast. An element in contrast with something else is more easily seen and understood; something different attracts the eye. Any of the elements can be contrasted: line (a curve in the midst of straight lines), shape (a circle in a field of squares), color (one red dot on a background of grays and blacks), and value (a light or dark area in the middle of its opposite) and texture (rough vs. smooth). Contrast can also be created by contrasting orientation in space (horizontal, vertical, diagonal), style (a geometric shape in an otherwise naturalistic image) and size. An important thing to remember about emphasis is that if everything is emphasized (all text is large and bold, all images are animated or flashing, everything is in bright colors) then nothing will stand out, nothing will be emphasized, nothing will grab the viewer’s attention. 
    The principle of unity is perhaps the most important of the design principles, yet it is often the most difficult to understand. Unity is the fundamental principle of design and it is supported by all the other principles. If a design is not unified, it cannot be considered successful. Unity creates an integrated image in which all the elements are working together to support the design as a whole. A unified design is greater than the sum of its parts; the design is seen as a whole first, before the individual elements are noticed. Unity can be compared to harmony, integrity or wholeness. Unity is based on the gestalt theory of visual perception, which states that the eye of the viewer seeks a gestalt or unified whole. This means that the viewer is actually looking for a connection between the elements, for some sort of organization, for unity in the design. A gestalt is created because the mind simplifies and organizes information. It does this by grouping elements together to create new wholes. Understanding how the mind groups elements (by proximity, similarity, continuation and alignment) helps us understand how unity can be achieved. 

    Note: A gestalt is something that has particular qualities when you consider it as whole which are not obvious when you consider only the separate parts of it. 
    • Proximity is based on grouping by closeness; the closer elements are to each other, the more likely we will see them as a group. Proximity is one of the easiest ways to achieve unity. 
    • Repetition is based on grouping by similarity; elements that are similar visually are perceived to be related. Any element can be repeated - line, shape, color, value or texture - as well other things such as direction, angle or size. Repetition helps unify a design by creating similar elements and is one of the most effective ways to unify a design. 
    • Alignment consists of arranging elements so that their edges are lined up. The common alignment allows the eye to group those elements together. A grid is often used to create unity through alignment, not just in a single design but also between related designs (the pages of a magazine or book, for example) 
    • Continuation means that something (a line, an edge, a curve, and a direction) continues from one element to another. The viewer’s eye will follow the continuing line or edge smoothly from one element to other and the mind will group the elements because of this connection. 
    Whenever we are working in Photoshop, we are working in a color mode. The default mode is RGB. But for print purpose, color modes play a very important role and it is useful to know about them because this gives us a better idea of how Photoshop creates images. Let us understand the various color modes available in Photoshop

     o RGB: Constitute of Red (R), Green (G), & Blue (B). These are also known as Primary colors. An RGB image contains three channels made up of red, green and blue color data.

    o CMYK: Constitute of Cyan (C), Magenta (M), Yellow(Y) and Black (K). These are the secondary colors formed by mixing the primary colors. Images are edited in RGB mode but are converted in CMYK for color separations before sending for print.

    o L*a*b color: L*a*b color consists of a luminance or lightness component (L) and two chromatic components: the “a” component (from green to red) and the “b” component (from blue to yellow). Since Lab mode is device independent, we can use it to edit any image. 

    o Gray-scale: This mode uses up to 256 shades of gray. It ranges from 0 (black) to 255 (white). 

    o Bitmap: It uses one of two color values (black or white) to represent the pixels in an image. This mode is used for line art. 
    o Duo-tone: This mode creates duotone (two-color), triton (three-color), and quad tone (four-color) gray-scale images. Duo-tones are usually created to add a color tint to black and white photographs.  
    o Indexed color: This mode uses 256 levels of gray in each channel. Index color images are created from RGB images. 
    o Multi-channel: This mode uses 256 levels of gray in each channel. Multi-channel images are useful for specialized printing. Deleting a channel from a RGB, CMYK, or Lab image creates a Multi-channel image. 
    A color mode determines the color model used to display and print images. Let us discuss about common color models. 

    o HSB: In the HSB model, color is defined by three components: hue, saturation and brightness. Hue decides color (yellow, orange, red, etc.), brightness indicates perceived intensity (lighter or darker color) and saturation determines color depth (from dull to intense)

    o RGB (Red, green, blue): Computer screens display their images using Red, Green and Blue (RGB) light. This means that the millions of colors that our monitor creates can all be described as total of red, green, and blue. RGB colors are also called additive colors. Additive colors are used for lighting, video and monitors. 

    o CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, and black): The most common method of reproducing color images on paper is by combining cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks. These four colors are the color components of CMYK (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black) color model. Because the CMYK color model creates color by absorbing light, it is called a Subtractive Color Model. 

    o CIE L*a*b: It is a color model created by the commission Internationale de I’Eclairage (CIE).It contains a luminance (or lightness) component (L) and two chromatic components: ”a” (green to red) and “b” (blue to yellow). The Lab color mode is based on the Lab color model. When 100% cyan, 100% magenta, and 100% yellow are combined, the resulting color is black. 


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