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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Creating different shapes and tips n tricks in Adobe Photoshop

Now we will learn how to create different shapes in Adobe Photoshop. We'll start by learning how to use the five geometric shape tools - the Rectangle Tool, the Rounded Rectangle Tool, the Ellipse Tool, the Polygon Tool, and the Line Tool. 
CREATING DIFFERENT SHAPES
Including Custom shape tool they're all nested together in the same spot in the Tools palette. By default, the Rectangle Tool is the one that's visible in the Tools panel, but if we click on the tool's icon and hold our mouse button down for a second or two, a fly-out menu appears showing us the other Shape tools we can choose from: 

  • Lets select rectangle tool, With the Rectangle Tool selected, a row of six icons appears in the Options Bar, with each icon representing a different Shape tool. The tools are listed from left to right in the same order they appear in the Tools palette, so again we have the Rectangle Tool, the Rounded Rectangle Tool, the Ellipse Tool, the Polygon Tool, the Line Tool, and the Custom Shape Tool. Simply click on one of the icons to choose the tool you need:  
  • Photoshop actually lets us draw three very different kinds of shapes -vector shapes, paths, or pixel-based shapes. Here we are going to choose paths. 
  • The next thing we need to do is choose a color for our shape, and we do that by clicking on the color swatch to the right of the word Color in the Options Bar: 
  • You can also choose color from the foreground and background color boxes in tools palette. 
  • As you probably guess from its name, Photoshop’s Rectangle Tool lets us draw four-sided rectangular shapes. Simply click in the document to set the starting point for your shape. As you drag, you’ll see a thin outline of what the shape will look like. When you are happy with the look of your shape, release your mouse button.  
  • Press Control + Enter for selection, then Alt + Backspace for coloring your rectangle. Press Control + D for deselecting. In the same way you can use Rounded Rectangle Tool, the Ellipse Tool.  
  • While using Polygon Tool, first Enter the number of sides you need for your polygon shape into the Sides option in the Options Bar. The default value is 5, but you can enter any value from 3 to 100: 
  • Once you've entered the number of sides, click in the document and drag out your polygon shape. 
  • Drawing Stars with the Polygon Tool 


    o To draw stars with the Polygon Tool, click on the small arrow in the Options Bar to bring up the Polygon Options, then select Star: 



    o With the Star option selected, just click inside the document and drag out a star shape. The Sides option in the Options Bar controls the number of points in the star, so with the default Sides value of 5, for example, we get a 5-pointed star: 


    o We can create a different star shape by increasing the indent of the points using the Indent Sides by option. The default value is 50%. I'll increase it to 90%: 


    o Here's my star shape with the indent set to 90%. I've also increased the number of sides to 16: 
    o By default, stars have sharp corners on the ends of their points, but we can make them rounded by choosing the Smooth Corners option: 

    Selecting the Smooth Corners option. 
    o Here's a standard 5-pointed star with the Smooth Corners: 

    o We can smooth the indents as well and make them rounded by selecting the Smooth Indents option: 

    Selecting the Smooth Indents option. 

    o And again, we get a different look to our star shape: 
    o Finally, the Line Tool, which is the last of Photoshop's geometric Shape tools, lets us draw simple straight lines, but we can also use it to draw arrows. Set the thickness of the line by entering a value, in pixels, into the Weight option in the Options Bar. I'll set mine to 16 px: 


    o Then simply click in the document and drag out your line shape holding Shift Key, which makes it easy to draw horizontal or vertical lines. Press Control + Enter for selection, then Alt + Backspace for coloring your line. Press Control + D for deselecting: 

    o To add arrowheads to the lines, click on the small arrow in the Options Bar to bring up the Arrowheads options. Photoshop lets us add arrowheads to either the start or end of a line, or both. If you want the arrowhead to appear in the direction you're drawing the line, which is usually the case, select the End option. Make sure you select this option before drawing the line: 

    Select End in the Arrowheads options to add an arrowhead in the direction the line was drawn. 

    o Here's a line shape similar to the previous one, this time with an arrowhead on the end: 

    o If the default size of the arrowhead doesn't work for you, you can adjust it using the Width and Length options. We can also make the arrowhead appear concave using the Concavity option. The default value is 0%. I'll increase it to 50%: 


    o This changes the shape of the arrowhead. Again, make sure you set the Concavity option before drawing the line, otherwise you'll need to delete the shape and draw it again

    Photoshop can really help your creativity express itself through a variety of useful tools. It’s also excellent if all you want to do is retouch a photo a bit before you post it on your site or anywhere else. We have gathered a few tips and tricks that could really make a difference as you move forward with your next few images.  
    When you are working with a file and if you want to change the size of an image, rotate, flip or distort it, you can always do so by clicking Edit, then click Transform and select the action you desire. To make life easier, there’s a shortcut you can use. Simply press Ctrl + T on your keyboard and a bounding box will then appear around the image, indicating transformation. This means you can now resize your image. The best way to do so is by placing the cursor on one of the rectangle corners and then dragging the corner while holding the Shift key. When you’re finished just press Enter and you’re done. 

    To flip your image vertically or horizontally press Ctrl + T and then right click. A popup window will appear with a few options for rotating and flipping the image. Select the action you want and when you are done press Enter. Similarly, to distort or skew the image press Ctrl + T and then place the cursor on one of the corners you want to distort. Press Ctrl while holding your mouse down on the corner and dragging it down to wherever you want, then press Enter to activate. 

    A short and quick way to switch between units of measurements is to place the cursor on the rulers (press Ctrl + R to show or hide the rulers), and right click, then choose a new unit from the context menu. You have a wide variety of units there, from centimeters to pixels, millimeters, points and even percents. 

    c) The Lasso Tool Purpose: The Lasso Tool is used to make a selection.  It works best when large areas need to be selected Lets learn in detail how it works, you can find the Lasso Tool in the Tools Palette, or by pressing “L” in your Keyboard. Click in the desired area to be selected and hold down your left mouse button at the start of your selection. Draw or outline the desired area to be selected.  When finished, let go of the mouse button, and the Lasso tool will automatically select the desired area where you started and where you finished. Select more than one area if necessary (with the "Add to selection" button toggled on) 

    Now we are going to select the big cloud with Lasso tool. Select lasso tool from tools palette and start drawing its edges. Now you can change its color or put any gradient or can drag the desired selection with move tool to other different background/document. After that press CRTL + D to deselect the selection. 

    d) Magnetic Lasso Tool This is an easy selection tool that helps you trace and outline a part of an image, and to separate it from the rest of the image in order to perform certain actions. For example, you can select and separate a product from its background. The magnetic lasso tool detects the edges of an object, so it works best when you have a bold contrast between an object and its background with well-defined edges. You can find this tool in the tools panel. 
    To access the Magnetic Lasso, click and hold your mouse button down on the Lasso Tool until a fly-out menu appears. The magnetic lasso is the last one with a small magnet on it’s icon. Select it and then go to your image and place your mouse on the edge of the part you want to select. Click your mouse once, release and just go over the edges of the object you want to select (just like you do with scissors when you cut something out). 

    The Magic Wand is another selection tool, ideal for when you are working with a background that is very monotone and consistent. If you have a clearly defined color that you want to choose in an image, this is the tool for you. For example, the Magic Wand is great when you want to select a white background or a clear blue sky. Choose the magic wand tool from the tools panel and click on the part of the image you want to select. Make sure that you toggled the “add to selection” option on the top bar (icon of two squares) so you can keep on adding colors and tones to your selection. 

    The Tool Panel offers all the basic shapes you need like square, line, circle, ellipse etc. However, if you’d like to have extended options check out the custom shape tool.  

    g) Dodge Tool The Dodge Tool lightens pixels where you use it. This is a great solution for red “tired eyes”. Set the Dodge Tool to a soft brush, go to Range setting in the menu-bar’s pull-down and choose highlights, Then carefully brush over the eye area. Remember not to overdo it, or your model will start to look like an alien. A few simple strokes should do the job.

    h) Blur Tool A simple and delicate way to remove small wrinkles is to blur them a bit. Use the Blur tool to smooth-out small imperfections like the wrinkles around the eye or mouth area and simply blur them into the background. Again, be gentle and remember not to overdo it or instead of improving your image you’ll end up spoiling it. The Blur tool can be used for repair as well as more artistic purposes so it’s important to become friendly with it.

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