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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Adobe Photoshop

ADOBE PHOTOSHOPIntroduction: Photoshop is one of the most popular photo editing and development software packages available online. Why is it so popular among people? Why everyone wants to learn it? First, Photoshop is much more than software; it is a way to express yourselves and create something that never existed. It takes several months to master Photoshop and create something worth watching. The best thing about Photoshop is that you can create what you want and when you want. There are thousands of jobs available online and offline for Photoshop professionals. Almost every studio requires people who can work around Photoshop and create amazing images. Further, most of the website owners need photo editing work every now or then. Most of the website companies, marketing agencies, and even media channels require trained Photoshop professionals. 
No doubt, the knowledge and skills in Adobe Photoshop has helped so many artists to earn money and to have pride in their works. 

Why to learn Adobe Photoshop: There are actually so many reasons why one should learn Adobe Photoshop but we have listed in this post 8 reasons. Here they are: 

  • You can express yourself creatively 
  • You can create different graphic design projects 
  • You can artistically combine graphics with text 
  • You can make art works using brushes 
  • You can change the color of a picture 
  • You can correct photography mistakes 
  • You can transform pictures artistically 
  • You can have personal fulfilment 




  • Review  
  • New features and tools 
  • Features 

Review: Adobe Photoshop CC 2015 is the latest version of the world famous photo editing software. This last version offers several major improvements, new tools and the same fluid workflow that makes Photoshop the program of choice for millions of people all over the world. Even though the program was originally released as a utility for enhancing pictures, that use is only the tip of the iceberg, as Photoshop can be used for almost anything you can imagine. You can create complex photo-montages, vector designs, posters and basically any kind of photo manipulation. Photoshop is commonly used by digital artists and designers to create stunning pieces of artwork. Unlike older versions of the Adobe Suite, this program is now part of Adobe Creative Cloud, a service designed to unify the whole suite. Creative Cloud makes Adobe’s most powerful applications available via a subscription model for the very first time. When you join Creative Cloud, you can quickly sign up to Behance (Behance is a network of sites and services specializing in self-promotion, including consulting and online portfolio sites. It is owned by Adobe) Adobe Creative Cloud offers an easy way to share your creations with the community from your desktop. The interface of the program remains almost the same as in CS6 version. The bar containing every tool you need to work is placed on the left side of the screen. The adjustments, file options and filters can be accessed through the bar located at the top of the screen. The right side of the screen houses a panel that displays layers, channels and paths. This settings are fully customizable; you are free to remove tools that you’re not going to use for your current work or add new panels to the interface and attach them anywhere you want to create your own work-space.  


Adobe Photoshop CC brings in lots of tools that will make your work easier. Smart Sharpen filter can be used to sharpen your image in a much more clean way, minimizing common problems such as noise.  
Perspective Warp allows you to easily adjust the perspective of a specific part of your picture without affecting any other areas surrounding it. This can be used to change the viewpoint of any object you want. 
You can now add different photographic blurs using intuitive on-canvas controls. You can blur everything to sharpen a focal point. Besides, your blurs won’t be destructive because of the Smart Object support. This feature allows you to apply Blur or Liquify effects without harming the original image. You can edit and remove these effects whenever you want, even after saving your project. As Photoshop is now part of the Adobe Creative Cloud, it provides you with several powerful video editing features such as the advanced 3D image analysis tools. 3D printers are one of the most clever inventions nowadays, and Photoshop clearly wants to stay connected with this technology. This is why developers included the 3D Printing feature in this new CC version. 3D Printing allows you to view 3D designs and effortlessly refine and preview your final model. The 3D Printing feature supports models created with other 3D programs like Auto-desk Maya. Photoshop allows you to work with 3D models with a panel that features many of the well-known tools from the Layers panel. One of the coolest tools added to this CC version is the Camera Shake Reduction. This helps you stabilize a blurry shot, whether the blur was caused because of a long focal length or a slow shutter speed. Camera Shake reduction analyzes the original trajectory of the shot and restores its sharpness. 

  
Here you can check out the all-new features of Adobe Photoshop CC 2015: 
  • 3D Printing features: view and edit designs from other 3D programs such as Auto-desk Maya and print your models 
  • Adobe Creative Cloud subscription validation: get instant access to the latest updates and fixes, work seamlessly, collaborate with the community and synchronize files across multiple computers effortlessly 
  • Camera RAW 8: apply camera raw edits as filters to any file or layer to enhance them the way you want 
  • Perspective Warp: adjust the perspective of a specific part of an image without affecting the rest 
  • Smart Sharpen filter: sharpen your pictures with rich details and textures without losing quality or adding noise 
  • Camera Shake Reduction: restore sharpness accurately for your blurred pictures 
  • Linked Smart Objects: Linked Smart Objects enables you to use linked smart objects. Linked Smart Objects is perfect for collaborations while it helps you work more efficiently. 
Note: Smart Objects are layers that contain image data from raster or vector images, such as Photoshop or Illustrator files. Smart Objects preserve an image’s source content with all its original characteristics, enabling you to perform nondestructive editing to the layer. In Photoshop CC, you can embed the contents of an image into a Photoshop document. In Photoshop CC, you can also create Linked Smart Objects whose contents are referenced from external image files. The contents of a Linked Smart Object are updated when its source image file changes. Introduction to various versions, concepts and applications of Photoshop 


Even if you've never worked with images on your computer, you may have heard of Photoshop. Available for both Windows and Mac, Adobe Photoshop is an extremely powerful application that's used by many professional photographers and designers. You can use Photoshop for almost any kind of image editing. Photoshop was developed in 1987 by the American brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988.With Photoshop, we can explore our creativity, work at peak efficiency and achieve the highest quality results across the media. 


1. Raster (composed of pixels)  
2. Vector (composed of paths)  

Raster images are more commonly called bitmap images. It is the collection of pixels that make up an image. 



Vector graphics use mathematical relationships between points and the paths connecting them to describe an image. Vector graphics are composed of paths. If we resize bitmap images they lose quality but vector images don’t lose their quality. 

Pixels are tiny colored squares that we can see if we increase the magnification of any image to its maximum. A typical image contains millions of pixels, which is why digital camera output is defined in megapixels. PPI (Pixels per Inch) measures the number of pixels per line per inch in a digital photo. This number is directly related to the number of megapixels a digital camera can capture


Under concepts of Photoshop we have types of image files which we are going to discuss now. 
Types of image files in Photoshop – 

i. PSD 
ii. TIFF 
iii. JPEG 
iv. PNG 
v. GIFF 
o PSD - 

  • You will want to save as a Photoshop PSD when you have many layers that you want to preserve. 
  • Saving this way will retain adjustment layers, your masks, shapes, clipping paths, layer styles, blending modes. 
  • PSDs often are large in size, especially if you edit with many layers. 


o TIFF

  • This targeted file format is the highest quality and is excellent for print as there is no loss in quality. 
  • Can supports layers 
  • Retains information in layers 

o JPEG

  • Good for web, used for photos or complex coloration (e.g. – gradients) 
  • The biggest downsize is that the jpeg format is lossy.  Each time you open and save, the image compresses and you lose a small amount of information. 
  • When saving as a jpg, you decide what quality you desire 


  • The Portable Network Graphics format also creates smaller file size but without the quality loss of a GIF. 
  • Often used for graphics instead of GIF. 
  • You can share these files on the web. 


o The Graphics Interchange Format is good for web graphics with animation but NOT recommended for photos. 
o The file size is very small so these files load fast on the web. 
o The downsides are limited colors and does not handle photographs well. Under concepts of Photoshop next we are going to discuss about the Photoshop Workplace. 
 o The Photoshop work-space (File menu, Toolbox, Options bar, Palettes) 
  • File Menu -  It used to create new document, open files, browse documents or folders, saved projects, set up page, print and exit the program. 
o New   Creates a new document. You can give a name of your document in the Name field. From Preset field you can choose paper size such as A4, Clipboard, letter. You can set the Width and Height as per your requirement. Pixel can be changed to other measurement such as inch, mm, cm, picas etc.  
Resolution is the fineness of detail in a bitmap image and is measured in pixels per inch (PPI). The more pixels per inch, the greater the resolution. So, we can set resolution as per our requirement in resolution field. From color mode you can change color mode such CMYK, Greyscale, Bitmap or Lab color in the Color mode field. Choose 8 bit in the bit field. In background contents field we have three options such as white, background color and transparent. White will keep your background white. You can choose background color option if you want any color in your background. You need to set background color first then choose background color option. If you want your background transparent then choose transparent. After finishing all the settings press ok. 
o Open -   
Lets you pick an existing document to open. 

Launches Adobe Bridge so you can look at images before you open them in Photoshop. 

There are many people don’t understand when we use open or Open As. Open As mean “Open As Smart Object” option. Open option doesn’t allow to open an image by camera raw. The Open As allows you to select an image that does not have an extension associated with it and open it in Photoshop. This means you can edit object in the appropriate software, vector in Illustrator, raster in Photoshop and save the file.  

Displays a list of recently opened documents. So you can reopen them easily without rooting through your hard drive. 

This will close only a single file which is opened. 

This will close multiple opened files together.  

Saves the current document to your hard drive. If you’ve already saved the document, choosing this command overwrites the previous version. 

Opens the Save As dialog box where you can save a copy of the current file with a new name or in a different format 

Lets you save a copy of the current document in formats that work well with web browser 

Use this option to place an image or other Photoshop-supported file format into your current document. The artwork appears on its own layer, surrounded by a bounding box you can use to resize it.
In Adobe Photoshop, importing content is less frequently done. Still, in some cases you will want to import content into the Photoshop program. In Photoshop, you can choose to open an image to work with or import content into a document that’s open already. Choose File→Place to import AI, EPS, PDP, or PDF files. These files import into a new layer in the document, and you can then use tools to manipulate the imported content. 

o Export  
Choose this menu item to export your image as paths.so you can open them with Adobe Illustrator, export collected data or export a sequence of images to video. 
  • Perhaps the most important element of the Photoshop interface is the toolbar. It contains a bunch of icons that represent the different tools Photoshop offers to alter and create images. These include tools for selecting specific areas of images, changing the colors of the image, stretching, transforming, and erasing parts of an image, and many more. To get an idea of what some of these tools can do, mouse over the icons and you’ll get an explanatory tool tip. The toolbox in Photoshop is split up into 4 unique categories so that finding the right tool is never a hassle. Those categories are: 

1. Selection, Crop & Slice Tools 
2. Retouch & Paint Tools 
3. Drawing & Type Tools (Vector Tools) 
4. Annotations & Measurement Tools 
In addition to these 4 sections a few other components make up the toolbox, most notably, the Foreground and Background colors. 


o The Marquee Tools are used for selecting objects such as rectangles, squares, and ellipses. 
o The Move Tool is used to move selections, objects, and layers. 
o There are several Lasso Tools which are used to make irregular selections. There is a polygonal lasso tool for polygon selections, and a magnetic lasso tool which automatically follows edges of objects. 
o The Magic Wand Tool selects an area of similar colors in a single click (such as the white in the cloud logo). 
o The Crop Tool allows users to redefine their active image area but not resize the ENTIRE image. It’s sort of like cutting out a smaller picture from a larger photo with a pair of scissors. 
o The Slice Tool creates slices.  
o The Slice Selection tool selects slices. 
o Retouch & Paint Tools 
  • The Healing Brush and Patch Tools rectify the imperfect area of the image. 
  • The Clone Stamp Tool paints with a sample of an image. 
  • The Pattern Stamp Tool paints with part of an image as a pattern. 
  • The Paint Brush Tool paints brush strokes. 
  • The Pencil Tool paints hard-edged strokes. 
  • The Color Replacement tool replaces a selected color with a new color. 
  • The History Brush Tool paints a copy of the selected state or snapshot into the current image window. 
  • The Art Brush Tool paints with stylized strokes that simulate the look of different paint styles, using a selected state or snapshot. 
  • The Eraser Tool erases pixels and restores parts of an image to a previously saved state. 
  • The Background Eraser Tool erases areas to transparency by dragging. 
  • The Magic Eraser Tool erases solid colored areas to transparency with a single click. 
  • The Gradient Tools create straight-line, radial, angle, reflected, and diamond, blends between colors. 
  • The Paint Bucket Tool fills similarly colored areas with the foreground color. 
  • The Blur Tool blurs hard edges in an image. 
  • The Sharpen Tool sharpens soft edges in an image. 
  • The Smudge Tool smudges data in an image. 
  • The Dodge Tool lightens areas in an image. 
  • The Burn Tool darkens area in an image. 
  • The Sponge Tool changes the color saturation of an area. o Path, Type and Shape Tools- This group constitutes of Selection Tools, Type tool, Path tool, & shape tools: 
  • The Path Selection Tools make shape or segment selections showing anchor points, direction lines and direction points. 
  • The type tool creates type on an image. The Horizontal and Vertical Type tools create types in horizontal and vertical respectively. These two tools acquire foreground color by default. Whereas the horizontal type mask tool and vertical type mask tool create a selection in the shape of numbers and alphabets. 
  • The Pen tool lets us draw smooth-edged paths. 
  • The Custom shape tool makes customized shapes selected from a custom shape list. o Annotation and Measurement Tools – 
  • The Annotations tools makes notes and voice annotations that can be attached to an image. 
  •  The Eyedropper tool (the icon  in the Toolbar) is used to sample a color from an image to use that color further. When you pick a color with the Eyedropper tool, it appears as the foreground color in the Toolbar. 
  • The Hand  Tool allows you to navigate an edited image, when it is not completely visible in its window. 
  • The Zoom Tool magnifies and reduces the view of an image. 

Photoshop has two categories of color — a foreground color and a background color. You apply the foreground color when you use the type tools, the painting tools, or the shape tools. The foreground color is also the beginning color of a default gradient applied by the Gradient tool. The background color is the color you apply with the Eraser tool and is the ending color of the default gradient.  The default color for the foreground is black; for the background is white. Click the small icon labeled or simply press the D key to return the colors to the defaults. To switch the foreground and background colors, click the curved arrow in the Tools panel or press the X key. 


Quick masks are a handy little Photoshop- feature that many people don’t even know about. When you want to use a mask in a more traditional way, use a quick mask. It works very similarly to the way a mask in the real world works. Say you were painting a room and you didn’t want to get paint on the trim. You would use tape right – masking tape? Quick masks act very much the same way. Let’s show an example. 

I have this shape on its own layer. To enter the quick mask mode, simply hit the letter Q on your keyboard. You won’t see anything happen, but your history palette will show that you have entered quick mask mode. 
Select your gradient tool and swipe a gradient from the upper left hand corner to the lower right. Notice how the pink gradient appears after you do this. This is the mask. 
Now to exit quick mask mode, hit the Q key again. Photoshop will give you a selection based on your quick mask. I am going to use the mask to make a split-screen effect with my flower. 
I simply go Image -> Adjustments ->Hue and Saturation. Make the necessary changes, and you can see the result. 
  •  Options bar -  The options bar is used to choose settings for each tool (e.g., opacity, fade distance, blending mode). Options on the bar change depending on which tool is currently chosen, and your choices will remain in effect until you change them. The options bar can be dragged to a different part of your screen.
  • Introduction to Palettes -  Palettes [shown below] are the examples of groups of tools used to edit and manipulate your image.  Photoshop contains over two dozen palettes that can be shown or hidden by using the Window menu and selecting the palette you wish to reveal. Palettes with a check-mark beside their names [Left] indicate that they are open in your Photoshop work-space and selecting those check marked palettes will hide them.  
  • When you first open Photoshop, the palettes are stacked along the right edge of your screen in palette groups. The first group contains the Navigator, Info, and histogram palettes. Next is the Histogram and actions palettes and Color Swatches. Finally, you have the Layers, Channels, and Paths Palettes. 
  • Palette groups can be moved around in the work-space by clicking on the title bar and dragging. Each palette group has a collapse and a close button in the title bar area. Clicking the collapse button a second time after the palette is collapsed will expand the palette. You may also notice that some palettes do not completely collapse. Try collapsing the color palette and you'll see that the color ramp is still visible.  


The color palette provides a color ramp along the bottom of the palette for quickly picking an approximate color. As you move your cursor over the color ramp, it changes to an eyedropper. Clicking in the color ramp changes the foreground color. Holding Alt while clicking on the color ramp changes the background color. 

    • The Swatches Palette allows you to collect colors for future use. The foreground and background colors can also be set with this palette. Swatches are useful for saving colors you use often. 
    • From the main menu, choose Window > Swatches to view the Swatches palette: 


    • Photoshop comes packed with a good number of Layer Style Presets, all which are accessible through the Styles Palette (Window > Styles). 
    • To apply a Layer Style, select the Layer you’d like to work with in your document from the Layers Palette, and then select the Layer Style which you would like to apply. 
    • Once the layer is active, click on the desired style. 
    • Adobe Photoshop offers a nice variety of styles, but most importantly you can create one of your own. Go to the layer styles menu by double clicking the layer which you’d like to work with. 
    • Now from the Layer style menu you can add drop and inner shadow 
    • Also you can use gradient overlay from layer style menu. Select the desired gradient from the gradient drop down menu. 
    • Change the angle and scaling and then press ok to apply the effect. 
    • At any moment I can go back to the layer styling and change the effect. 
    • For e.g. I want to change the gradient then double click the layer in which you are working.  
    • From the layer style menu select gradient overlay and let’s change the opacity. 
    • Click ok to apply the changes. 
    •  Now go to the styles palette and click create new style. 
    • New style dialog box will come in front of you. 
    • Give it a name and click ok 
    • See, the new style has come in the style palette. 

    Now we will learn about brush palette. To bring up the brushes palette you can click here in the upper right corner of the options bar (when you are on a brush tool). Or simply press B. 
     Make sure that you are on a new layer if you’re going to do some painting. Create a new layer by pressing the new layer icon that looks like a white piece of paper on the bottom of the layers palette. 
    You can choose a foreground color from any of the color choosing methods such as the swatch palette. The foreground color is the color that you will paint with (until you change it)  You can choose brushes from the brush palette. The brushes palette gives you lots of options. Remember that you can only work with it when you are on the brush tool (B). Take a look at the brush palette and scroll down to see the different kinds of brushes that you can choose to work with. Simply click to highlight one. Remember that the foreground color is the color which you will ‘paint’ with. It is located here. There are some pretty It’s important to understand this and you’ll probably want the ‘paint’ on a separate layer than the background anyways. This also helps make it more disposable and you can ‘erase’ without erasing background pixels of the image itself. cool brushes, just scroll through and find some.You can load more brushes into the brushes palette by clicking on the small arrow Choose ‘Special effect brushes’ from the menu. A pop up menu will come in front of you. Then press ok. Set of new brushes will be loaded and you can scroll through them and choose new brush. To reset the brushes click reset brushes. Changing the Brush Size and Hardness in Photoshop: Below are the keyboard shortcuts for changing Brush Size and Hardness in Adobe Photoshop 
    o Navigator Palette: The Navigator palette lets you navigate within an image or to adjust the zoom level of an image. To display navigator palette, Choose Window > Navigator. When you open a document in Photoshop, in the center of the Navigator palette, you'll see a small thumbnail representation of your image, surrounded by a red outline representing the visible area of your document. View Box – (red outline) Dragging the view box inside the image thumbnail will reveal hidden portions of the picture. If your entire image is visible, the outline surrounds the entire thumbnail. 
    You can magnify or reduce your view by sliding the Zoom slider or by clicking Zoom In /Zoom Out button.  
    • View Box – (red outline) Dragging the view box inside the image thumbnail will reveal hidden portions of the picture. 
    •  Magnification Box – Enter a new zoom ratio and press Enter to increase or decrease your magnification.   
    • Zoom Out – Select the zoom out button beside the magnification box, to reduce the view size. 
    • Zoom Slider – Dragging the zoom slider to the left will zoom out, dragging to the right will zoom in. 

      • Using the Info Palette 
      • From the main menu, choose Window > Info to view the Info palette 
      • The Info palette displays information about the color values depending on the tool in use. 
      • The first section of the Info palette displays the color values of the image area beneath your cursor (R, G and B values). The second section shows the related CMYK colors (when used). When moving a selection, the other items in the palette will monitor the movement. 
      • X, Y – These values show the coordinate position of your cursor on the image window. 
      • W, H – these values indicate the width and height of your selection 

      Now we will learn how to use the history palette in Photoshop. The history palette keeps track of all the changes you make to your image and allows you to undo those changes. 
      • If the history palette is closed, you can open it by going to the Window menu and selecting history from there.  
      • The history palette shows up in the toolbar with a list of the changes we have made so far 
      • If we make a change to the image, in this case we are moving the image. 
      • The change wi
      •  You can create a new document from the current state of the image by clicking this icon 
      •  To undo the last change, you can press CTRL + Z on your keyboard. To undo multiple changes, press CRTL + ALT + Z  
      • You can delete a change by right on it and then select delete 
      • Select ‘YES’ to confirm 
      • You can clear the entire list of changes from the palette by right clicking and selecting clear history from the pop up menu. 
      • The entire history will be cleared from the palette. 


      • The Actions Palette allows you to record, play, edit, and delete individual actions.  
      • From the main menu, choose Window > Actions to view the Actions palette: 
      • ll appear to the list in the history palette. 

      From road signs to technical schematics, graphic design enhances transfer of knowledge and visual messages. Readability and legibility is enhanced by improving the visual presentation and layout of text. Design can also aid in selling a product or idea through effective visual communication. It is applied to products and elements of company identity like logos, brochures, banners, leaflet, hoardings, colors, packaging, and text. Together these are defined as branding (advertising). Branding has increasingly become important in the range of services offered by many graphic designers, alongside corporate. Graphic designers will often form part of a team working on corporate identity and branding projects. Other members of that team can include marketing professionals, communications consultants and commercial writers. Graphic design is applied in the entertainment industry in decoration, scenery, and visual story telling. Other examples of design for entertainment purposes include novels,a comic books, DVD covers, opening credits and closing credits in film-making, and programs and props on stage. This could also include artwork used for T-shirts and other items screen-printed for sale. Graphic way finding signage systems have become important for large public spaces such as airports and convention centers. These systems often depend on graphic design to communicate information quickly and economically through a color or symbol that can be read and followed from a distance. Such environmental graphic design systems allow people to navigate unfamiliar spaces. From scientific journals to news reporting, the presentation of opinion and facts is often improved with graphics and thoughtful compositions of visual information - known as information design. Newspapers, magazines, blogs, television and film documentaries may use graphic design to inform and entertain. 


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