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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Managing the Application Life Cycle

Managing DevOps with Cloud Application Manager and ALM ...
HTML 5 is the latest HTML standard and a family of technologies that includes HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Although the HTML5 standard won’t be finalized for a few years, most modern Web browsers already support HTML5 elements, and HTML5 app development for Web and mobile device browsers is well underway. 

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the language you use to describe Web pages. It is a markup language, not a programming language, which means HTML uses markup tags such as <body> and <h1> to describe parts of a Web page. An HTML file doesn’t “run” like a program. Instead, an HTML file is interpreted by a browser to display a Web page based on the tags.

Since 1999, HTML 4.01 has been the standard for Web pages, but the world has changed quite a bit since then. Web users want richer Web applications that incorporate audio, video, and a lot of interactivity on the Web sites they visit. And with the surge in popularity of mobile devices like slates, tablets, and smartphones, users want to experience the same richness and interactivity in mobile applications regardless of which device they choose. All of this has prompted the need for a new standard, which will be HTML5. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main standards body developing specifications for HTML5, which should be finalized in 2014 An important point to remember about HTML5 is that it is both a standard and a combination or family of new HTML markup tags, CSS, JavaScript, and other related technologies. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) defines styles for HTML in a separate file, so you can easily change fonts, font sizes, and other attributes in a CSS file and the changes are reflected across all HTML files that reference the CSS file. The latest version of CSS is CSS3. JavaScript is a scripting language (a programming language that uses scripts and requires no compiler) that adds interactivity to Web pages. Although you can use HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript to create Web pages, you can also use the combination to develop client applications (apps) that run on touch-enabled devices like PCs, slates, tablets, and smartphones. Essentially, the same technologies developers use to build Web pages are now beginning to be used to build applications that run on different devices.

HTML5 is also platform-independent. That means you can create apps using the HTML5 family of technologies that can run on different desktop and mobile device operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, Internet Explorer, and Windows Phone. You can also run them in Mac OS X, Android, iOS, and Blackberry OS. Because HTML5 is built on an open standard, users of HTML5 apps do not have to download a plug-in or use devices that have plug-in support. Instead, you can use any Web browser, whether on your PC or mobile device, and get the same rich Web
experience. Finally, an important part of app development in the Windows environment is the Metro style user interface (UI), which is the UI used by the latest Microsoft Windows version: Windows 8. The Metro style UI includes features like a clean, uncluttered look and feel, use of the full screen, large hubs (graphical buttons), and a focus on lateral scrolling, to name a few.

What’s New in HTML5?

The HTML5 family includes many new markup tags and technologies like media queries, geolocation, Modernizr, and much more. These technologies add a lot of functionality to HTML-based apps and help make the finished product more stylish. 

The following is a short list of these new features and brief descriptions: 

  • Audio and video tags: Embeds audio and video multimedia using the HTML5 markup tags <audio> and <video>.
  • Canvas: An HTML5 element that creates a container for graphics, and uses JavaScript to draw the graphics as needed.
  • Media queries: A CSS3 feature that detects the user’s type of screen and sizes the output accordingly.
  • New application programming interfaces (APIs): Give apps access to a plethora of resources, such as files, webcams, and hardware-accelerated animations.
  • Geo-location: Uses JavaScript to detect the location (geographic positioning) of a client device, whether it’s a Windows Phone, Android phone, or a PC.
  • Modernizr: A JavaScript library that helps you deliver the new capabilities of HTML5 and CSS3 in older browsers.
EXPLORE THE HTML5 STANDARD

GET READY. To learn about the HTML5 standard, perform the following steps: 

1. Go to the W3C Web site at http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/. 
2. Read the content on the first few pages, until you reach the Table of Contents and then address the following questions:
  • What is the latest published version of the standard? 
  • Which working group is responsible for the specification?
  • What is the name of the Web page that tracks bugs, and what are three bugs that have not yet been addressed?
  • What is the name of the Web page that tracks outstanding issues, and what are three issues that have not yet been addressed?
3. On the main HTML5 Web page, spend about 15 minutes browsing the remainder of the page to become familiar with the topics.

EXPLORE APP DEVELOPER RESOURCES

GET READY. To learn about app develop resources provided by Microsoft, perform the  following steps:
1. Go to the Beginner Developer Learning Center Web site at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/beginner/default.aspx. 
2. Click the Getting started with Windows Metro style apps development link. On the resulting page, browse the information. Which technologies or development tools can you use to create Metro style apps?
3. Go to the HTML/CSS for Metro style apps Web page at http://bit.ly/N48F0L.
4. Click the HTML and DOM reference link and then answer the following question:
5. Return to the HTML/CSS for Metro style apps page at http://bit.ly/N48F0L. Click the Cascading style sheets reference link and then address the following:
6. Go to the MSDN site at http://bit.ly/Hd9uzt. Browse the information to become familiar with the site
  • What is the Document Object Model (DOM) and what is its significance to Metro Style apps?
  • Name three elements of Web pages that are controlled using CSS.
Creating Apps

HTML5 apps are much easier to develop than similar apps that use other technologies such as Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silver-light. HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript are interpreted languages, which means they do not require compilation. You can debug the code within a browser, make quick edits, and then refresh the browser window to see the result of the changes.

Although you can create a lot of code using a simple text or HTML editor, if you want to package and deploy your app, you’ll need to use an application development tool such as Microsoft Visual Studio.

In this section, you will learn the general steps involved in creating an app. illustrate the steps, which are explained as follows:
  • Plan your project: Think about the type of app you want to create. Whatever you choose, it’s best to keep it simple while you’re first learning HTML5 app development. After you decide on the main action of your app, create an outline of the general flow of the application from start to finish. Also determine the type of user interactivity you want to include, such as a touch interface, whether you need to save data outside of the app, and whether the app should connect to other apps or services (such as an RSS feed).
  • Design a UI: When designing the user interface, determine how you want the app to appear to users. Group the content in a way that makes logical sense. Begin listing the commands you will need for the app to run as expected, and gather images and multimedia clips if necessary. At a minimum, today’s apps require a launcher icon, which represents your app.
  • Update the app manifest: Every app requires a manifest file. The manifest file describes properties of the app and what the app needs to run (see Figure 1-4). The file includes many different pieces of information, such as a display name that users see, a description of the app, the app’s orientation (portrait, landscape, etc.), the file path to the app’s icon, the app’s capabilities (system features or devices that your app can use), and much more.
  • Write code: During this phase, you compose the code for your application, which might include a combination of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. 
  • Build the app: Using an app development tool such as Visual Studio, convert your code and other resources into an actual application.
  • Debug and test: You must test your app thoroughly and fix any problems that appear. If the app uses a touch interface, it’s highly important to test the app on a touch device or use a touch emulator.
  • Package: Packaging an app creates a container that holds all of the various files required by the app, such as JavaScript, images, and so on.
  • Validate: Validating your app means running it through a validation program to ensure nothing is missing,
  • Deploy: Upload your app to a marketplace such as the Windows Store.
Apps that you plan to deploy to many people, especially through a marketplace such as an app store, must be reliable and secure. Many apps are also designed to run on multiple operating systems. Be sure you have tested your app thoroughly and validated it with the proper tools. You should also consider providing technical support for more complex apps.

PREPARE FOR APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT

GET READY. To prepare to work with HTML5 and develop apps, perform the following steps: 1. Look for sources of free, non-copyrighted images on the Web. Even if you’re capable of creating many of your own graphics, having resources to draw from will come in handy. 2. To work with HTML5, CSS, and JavaScript files, download and install a text or HTML editor, such as Notepad++. (Just search for Notepad++ using a Web browser.) A more full-featured tool is Visual Studio Express for Web, available from the Visual Studio Web site at http://bit.ly/eBUygk. Express for Web lets you open your files into a Web browser with one click and provides lots of templates to help you create files quickly.

3. Ensure you have the latest versions of your browser installed. 
4. To create apps for the Windows Store, download Microsoft Visual Studio 2012 Express for Windows 8 from http://bit.ly/K8nkk1 and install it. The program requires Windows 8 to be installed.

Exploring Packaging and the Run-time Environment 

The Windows Run-time environment is the foundation of the Windows 8 operating system and provides functionality to Metro-style apps.

When an application is launched, it’s considered to be in a run-time environment (RTE). This is the environment in which developers test their applications, and where users run the apps. Windows has its own run-time environment, called Windows Run-time (Win-rt). 

The Win-rt is the foundation of the Windows 8 operating system, and is made up of layers that provide functionality to Metro-style apps and the Windows shell. Win-rt supports apps written in different languages that use the Metro UI.

The Windows Core layer is at the base. This layer includes the Windows kernel, services, and user mode. Moving up, the Windows Run-time Core includes additional services like memory management and globalization. Above the Windows Run-time Core are layers related to devices, along with media, networking, local and remote storage, and more. The UI layer supports HTML5 apps, along with others.

The Win-rt works with C#, C++, Visual Basic, and JavaScript. You can build Metro style apps with the Win-rt and Windows Library for JavaScript APIs. An application programming interface (API) is simply a list of instructions letting a program communicate with another program. In a Web app, an API enables a Web browser or a Web server to communicate with other programs. There are hundreds of APIs available for many different uses.

NOTE: The Document Object Model (DOM) is an important API to keep in mind. The DOM is designed for HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML), and allows programs and scripts to update content, structure, and styles on the fly—essentially anything in an HTML or XML file can be modified. The DOM is neither HTML nor JavaScript, but it ties them together.

The Windows Library for JavaScript includes JavaScript and CSS files which developers can use to create Metro style apps more easily and quickly. You use the library along with HTML, CSS, and the Win-rt to create apps.

The run-time environment is responsible for access to devices, media, networking, local and remote storage, and other items. A developer can use APIs and the run-time environment to request access to user devices within an app. In a Windows 8 app, for example, the device could be a keyboard, mouse, touch-pad, printer, webcam, or microphone.

UNDERSTANDING THE HOST PROCESS

Whether an app is a Web app or whether it’s created for Windows, an app requires a run-time host to start it. For example, when you start Internet Explorer, a host process in the operating system controls the overall execution of the browser. (A “process” is simply a program that’s being executed.) In this case, each browser tab gets its own process, so if you have three tabs open, the system has three processes running for each of those tabs.

When you run a Metro style app that was created with JavaScript, Internet Explorer renders the HTML much like when you browse to a Web page, but the browser is hosted by a different process, called WWAHost.exe. This process runs the app inside of an app container. (You’ll learn about app containers in the next section.) WWAHost passes the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript into the default.html page that is the start of your app.

To keep things orderly, the code running in a Metro style app container is restricted to certain actions, by default. If you want your app to access a device, another app, the Internet, or anything outside of itself, you must declare (specify) the interaction in the app manifest. These declarations are located in the Capabilities section of the manifest. When the end user installs the app, the user must give permission for the requested access.

Metro style apps use contracts, which are essentially agreements, and something called extensions when creating interactions between apps. Win-rt APIs handle the communication between the apps.

UNDERSTANDING THE APP PACKAGE AND APP CONTAINER

The purpose of an app package is for ease of distribution and deployment. Application packaging bundles an app’s files and folders into a distributed package. An app container ensures the application runs in its own memory space and doesn’t corrupt the operating system. Application packaging is the process of bundling an application and its various files into a distributed file, making it easy to deploy the app. The app package is the result of the packaging process. Packaging is similar to archiving a folder that contains files and sub-folders. It would be difficult to send all of the files and sub-folders to someone as is, but the job is much easier when you compress everything into a single archive file. App development packages like Visual Studio provide the functionality to create app packages. A user acquires an app package, usually from an online app store, and installs it on a PC or device. The application executes in a run-time app container, which means a separate memory space. An app container prevents corruption of the operating system if the application fails for some reason and enables a user to cleanly uninstall the app.

Some things you should know about packages are as follows:
  • A package may contain Web pages, code, database tables, and procedures. When a package has a user interface, it’s referred to as an application.
  •  A package can contain other packages.
  • You can move one or more elements in or out of a package. Because a package is in its own container, if you move a package, then everything in the package moves as a unit.
  • A user can install, upgrade, or remove a package.
A single package can have a lot of functionality. To keep all of the components separated so they don’t conflict, a package defines a namespace. Think of a namespace as a work area for related objects (pages, code, etc.). 

Understanding Credentials and Permission Sets

The .NET Framework provides a secure environment in which HTML5/JavaScript apps can run. The framework uses security transparency to separate different kinds of code while running, and uses permission sets and identity permissions to control the environment.


Code security is a priority with app developers. The monetary loss from viruses, Trojans, cross-site scripting attacks, and other malware distributed across the Internet increases each year. Creating a safe and secure environment for apps to run in is vitally important to most individuals and organizations today. The good news is that the .NET Framework 4.0 supports building and running Metro style apps, among other technologies. The .NET Framework is a Windows component that runs in the background, providing the code-execution environment for scripted or interpreted code (like JavaScript), helping them run with relatively few problems. It also provides an object-oriented programming environment for object code. The .NET Framework now relies more heavily on security “transparency” than in past versions. Transparency prevents application code from running with infrastructure code. The .NET Framework uses permission sets and identity permission. Permission sets are groups of permissions. Transparent code executes commands that don’t exceed the limitations of a permission set, and transparent code is even more limited when it comes to critical code. The .NET Framework defines several levels of permission sets, which range from Nothing (no permissions exist and code cannot run) to Full Trust (code can access all resources fully). Identity permissions protect assemblies (compiled code libraries) based on evidence, which is information about the assembly. Each identity permission represents a particular kind of evidence, or credentials, that an assembly must have in order to run.


Understanding and Managing Application States

A session state is created when a user first requests access to an application, and it ends when the session closes, such as when a user logs off. An application state exists from the time a Web browser requests a Web page until the browser closes. Persistent state information is data that exists after a session ends. In HTML5, developers can use the local-storage and session-storage JavaScript methods to deal efficiently with state data. In addition, App-cache enables a user to load data ordinarily stored on a server even when the user is offline.

State management is the process of maintaining Web page information during multiple requests for the same or different Web page. When a user first requests access to an application, the session state is created. The state ends when the user closes the session. 

An alternative to the session state is the application state. The application state is created when the Web browser sends the first request for a Web page to the Web server, and it ends when the user closes the browser.

Persistent state information is data that an application needs after the session ends. Many Web applications need to store data (make it persistent) so that users can pick up where they left off when they return to the site. 

Storing State Data Using Local and Session Storage

Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) is the protocol that transfers data on the World Wide Web. It defines the actions Web servers and browsers take in response to commands by users. For example, when you enter a uniform resource locator (URL) in the address field in a browser, the browser sends an HTTP command to the Web server requesting the Web page. HTTP is a stateless protocol, which means it doesn’t retain data from session to session. When you close a Web browser after visiting a Web site, the data is not saved.

To work around the limitations of HTTP protocol, developers historically have used cookies, which are small files that contain information about the user and the Web site visited and are saved on the user’s computer. When a user returns to a visited site, the browser sends the cookies back to the Web server. Cookies help a Web server “remember” a user and customize the user’s experience on that site.

However, cookies have proven to be a security risk. In addition, if large amounts of data are involved, all of the data gets sent between the browser and server upon every request, which would cause a noticeable performance decrease to the user. In HTML5, developers can use the Web storage instead, which offers more flexibility, larger data sets, and better performance. 

The local-storage method allows users to save larger amounts of data from session to session (persistent data), and there’s no time limit as to how long the data exists. The 
 session-storage method keeps data only for one session (until the browser is closed), which is also referred to as “per-tab storage.”

Using these methods, specific data is transferred only when requested, so it’s possible to store a relatively large amount of data without slowing down the connection or site.

APP-CACHE FOR OFFLINE FILES

Another way to use Web storage is to store data locally when a user is offline. The Application Cache, or App-cache, stores resources like images, HTML pages, CSS files,and JavaScript— data that would ordinarily be stored on a server. Because the resources are stored on the client’s hard disk or device, the resources load faster when requested.

Using App-cache, a developer uses a text file called a “cache manifest” to specify the files a Web browser should cache offline. Even if a user presses the Refresh button offline, the app will load and work correctly. A cache manifest file looks similar to the following:

index.html

stylesheet.css

images/dot.png

scripts/main.js

Understanding Touch Interfaces and Gestures

On a touch-screen device, a finger move is called a gesture, and the response by the app to that gesture is called an event. Developing touch-enabled apps requires thorough knowledge of how fingers interact with the screen and planning for different sizes of fingers. You can use JavaScript to create touch-enabled apps, primarily using the touch-start, touch-end, and touch-move events.

Today’s mobile devices and many PC monitors incorporate touch-screen technology, which makes it easier for many users to interact with the devices and their programs. A simple finger tap selects an object or presses a button, a finger swipe scrolls a list of photos on the screen, and a pinch zooms out on an image.

Any finger move is referred to as a gesture, which can involve a single finger (one-touch, such as press, tap, press and hold, slide to pan, and so on) or a finger and a thumb (two-touch, such as a pinch and stretch or a turn to rotate). The action the application takes in response to a gesture is called a touch event. You can use JavaScript to create touch events in touch-enabled apps. In JavaScript, the three primary touch events are touch-start, touch-end, and touch-move.

When designing apps for a touch-screen environment, gesture responsiveness is key. Slow performance will frustrate most users. Incorporate physics effects such as acceleration and inertia to create a more fluid interaction between the user and screen.

Visual feedback for successful interactions and other notifications is highly important. This allows the user to understand whether he or she is using the touch landscape appropriately. Snap points help users stop at a location within the interface where intended, even if a gesture is a little off the mark.

You should also keep in mind that users have different size fingers, and it’s a best practice to design for wider rather than narrower digits. And of course, users will be either right- or left-handed, so a well-designed app uses vertically symmetric navigation and provides for flipping the screen 90 degrees to go from portrait to landscape or vice versa.

Multi-touch occurs when a user must press multiple buttons or locations at once. This is common with games on a touch-screen device, where the user often uses several fingers and both thumbs simultaneously or in very rapid succession. In this situation, swipes and gestures don’t work well, resulting in unintended zooming and scrolling instead. The fix is to disable zooming and scrolling in JavaScript.

Another item to test for in a multi-touch app is the reaction to touch events. There will be many events occurring at the same time, which requires proper tracking of fingers and rendering in a loop to get the best performance.

When developing any touch-enabled app, be sure to test for the following: 
  • Tapping, pinching, rotating, and other common gestures
  • Controlled scrolling
  • Overall responsiveness and fluidity
  • Controlled panning
  • Ability to disabled scrolling and panning
  • Accuracy of snap points
  • Unintended zooming or scrolling, especially in a multi-touch environment
  • Proper touch event reaction, especially in a multi-touch environment
Designing and developing well-formed touch-enabled apps takes practice, and a lot of testing. If you don’t have a touch-screen device, you can use Mouse-touch events and a touch-screen emulator or simulator. Try Microsoft Surface SDK and Run-time for Windows 7, or the Windows Simulator tool in Visual Studio 11. A touch-screen simulator or emulator imitates a system that only has touch capabilities. Several free emulators are available online.

LEARN ABOUT GESTURES AND TOUCH-ENABLED APPS

GET READY. To learn about different kinds of gestures, perform the following steps: 
1. Go to the Touch interaction design Web page at http://bit.ly/GAJjDL. 
2. Read the content on the Web page. 
3. Bookmark the page for future reference or locate and click the link that downloads a PDF version of the Web page to your computer. 
4. Close the browser window.

Leveraging Existing HTML5 Skills and Content for 
Slate/Tablet Application

An advantage for seasoned developers who want to create Metro style apps is that their existing HTML5 skills and code lend themselves well to Metro app development.

A highly flexible aspect of developing touch-enabled Metro style apps is that it doesn’t require a big learning curve for developers who are already using HTML5 and other methods of app development. They can apply their existing skills and code to creating Metro style apps almost immediately. A Web developer’s experience with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and JavaScript libraries is an advantage when transitioning to touch-enabled Metro app development. In addition, Microsoft.NET Framework and Silver-light developers can apply their XAML, C#, and Visual Basic experience to Metro projects. Game programmers who are well versed with Microsoft Direct X 11 can also apply their skills creating Metro apps.

Debugging and Testing HTML5 Apps

All apps must be thoroughly tested and debugged to ensure they run reliably and as error-free as possible before distribution and deployment. Debugging an application involves detecting, finding, and correcting logical or syntactical errors. A syntax error is a typo in the code or a similar error, which is usually revealed during run-time for interpreted apps. A logic error results in the app behaving differently than expected. 

Testing and debugging code is a standard part of app development, and the majority of tools like Visual Studio have debugging features built in to the software. Some errors are easy to detect and fix, whereas others can require hours or even days to resolve, depending on the complexity of the application. 

Either way, the testing and debugging phase is highly important for several reasons: 
  • Your goal is to provide a reliable, secure, and useful app to customers. Debugging and testing help to ensure all three are met.
  • High-quality apps garner high ratings, which can boost your profits and drive sales of future apps.
  • If you plan to publish your app through the Windows Store or another reputable online app marketplace, the store will require validation or certification that your app has been tested.
Validating HTML5 Code

The W3C provides a code validation service for all active versions of HTML on its Markup Validation Service Web page at http://validator.w3.org/. The service is free for anyone to use. You simply click a link to upload your file to the service, or copy and paste the content of your file into a text box on the Web site. After that, click the Check button. The validation service checks your code and reports any errors or problems you need to fix. A validator is not the same as an emulator or a simulator. A validator actually tests the code and reports inaccuracies, giving you an opportunity to make changes. Emulators and simulators simply provide an environment in which to run code.The W3C also provides a link checker at http://validator.w3.org/checklink. This service checks that all links in your HTML file are valid. The CSS Validation Service at http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/ checks your CSS files.

Validating a Package

Microsoft provides a free tool called the Windows App Certification Kit for testing local apps. The kit is a type of validator that tests your app on your computer before you attempt to package and publish it to the Windows Store. 

The Windows App Certification Kit is included in the Windows Software Development Kit (SDK) for Metro style apps, available on the Microsoft Web site. To use the kit, you must first package and install the app locally using an app development tool. Then open the kit, select the application you want to validate, and run the validator. A report displays noting any problems with the app. The Windows App Certification Kit might also be available as a menu choice within your app development tool. Correct the problems in an app development tool and then test the application again. You’ll repeat this process until your app validates.

USE THE W3C MARKUP VALIDATION SERVICE

GET READY. To become familiar with the W3C Markup Validation Service, perform the  following steps: 
1. Go to the W3C Markup Validation Service Web page at http://validator.w3.org/. 
2. Click the Validate by File Upload tab. 
3. Click Browse. 
4. Navigate to and select an HTML file from one of your sample apps. Click Open, and then click Check. 
5. Scroll down the page and read the errors and warnings, if any. 
6. If the validator provides links to more information about errors or warnings, click through to at least two of them and read the information. 
7. When you’re finished, leave the Web browser open.

USE THE W3C CSS VALIDATION SERVICE


GET READY. To become familiar with the W3C CSS Validation


                       Service, perform the  following steps: 

1. Go to the W3C CSS Validation Service Web page at 

     http://jigsaw.w3.org/css-validator/
2. Click the By file upload tab. 

3. Click Browse. 

4. Navigate to and select a CSS file from one of your sample apps. 

    Click Open, and then click Check.

5. Scroll down the page and read the errors and warnings, if any. 

6. If the validator provides links to more information about errors 

    or warnings, click through to at least two of them and read the 

    information. 

7. When you’re finished, leave the Web browser open.

Publishing an Application to a Store

Once your app has been tested, debugged, and the code validated or certified, you need to take a few more steps to prepare it for upload to a marketplace such as the Windows Store. You can use Visual Studio 12 or Visual Studio 12 Express to complete the project.

Publishing your app to a public marketplace like the Windows

Store is the pinnacle of all of your planning, designing, coding, and 

testing. The Windows Store is an online global marketplace for

Metro style apps. Publishing your app for distribution through the 

store can possibly turn a good idea into a lucrative venture.

Another bonus to selling through the Windows Store is that you get access to several handy tools, such as Microsoft Visual Studio Express and Microsoft Expression Blend. You can also download personalized app telemetry data, which can greatly speed up app creation and deployment. 

Before publishing your app to the Windows Store, you must do the following:
  • Sign up and pay for a Windows Store developer account, and reserve a name for your app. You’ll also need to edit your app’s manifest file.
  • Go through the app submission checklist at http://bit.ly/HAPmbk. The checklist includes tasks such as naming your app, choosing selling details such as selecting appropriate pricing and a release date, assigning an age rating, describing your app, and more.
  •  Use the Windows App Certification Kit to test your app, if you haven’t done so already. 
  • Capture some screen shots of significant or unique features of your app to showcase in the store. You can use the Snipping Tool, which is built into Windows 7 and Windows 8, to capture screen shots or you can use another tool of your choice.
  • Have other testers or developers test your app on as many different devices and platforms as possible, especially if you tested it only in a simulator or emulator.
  • Include a privacy statement if your app gathers personal information or uses copyrighted software to run.
When you’re ready, use your app development tool (such as Visual 

Studio 12 or Visual Studio 12 Express for Windows 8) to create a 

final app package and then upload it to the Windows Store. 

It’s customary to wait for approval from the store. If approved,

your app will be certified and listed. However, even after all of your

preparatory work, your app could be rejected, which means you 

must fix any problems noted by app store personnel if you want to 

retest and republish the app.

BECOME FAMILIAR WITH THE WINDOWS STORE MARKETPLACE

GET READY. 

To learn more about Windows Store requirements, perform the
following steps: 

1. Open Internet Explorer, then go to www.bing.com. 

2. Search for Windows Store Marketplace and go to the site.
3. Browse the categories of apps. Note the three highest rated

     apps, and another three apps that interest you. 

4. Read the description of each app and make notes that could 

    help you write an appealing description for your app. 

5. Note the number and quality of screen shots provided for those       
    apps.
6. Note the quality of the launcher icon and any other graphical          
    details. 

7. Note the price and age rating of each app. 

8. Note any other details that might help you sell your app when 

     it’s ready. 

9. When you’re done, close all open windows.

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What if Analysis

What-If Analysis What-If Analysis in Excel allows you to try out different values (scenarios) for formulas. The following example helps you master what-if analysis quickly and easily.  Use scenarios to consider many different variables  A scenario is a set of values that Excel saves and can substitute automatically in cells on a worksheet. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of these new scenarios to view different results. 
Create Different Scenarios 
Note: You can simply type in a different revenue and Cost into cell B2 and B3 respectively to see the corresponding result of a scenario in cell B4. However, what-if analysis enables you to easily compare the results of different scenarios.  
I. On the Data tab, click What-If Analysis and select Scenario Manager from the list. The Scenario Manager Dialog box appears  II. Add a scenario by clicking on Add.  III. Type a name (e.g. “First Case”), select cell B2 and B3 (represents “Revenue” and “…

PROFESSIONAL ENGLISH

Asking For and Giving Opinions on Likes and Dislikes

Words Meaning Sample Sentence Opinion A statement or judgment formed about some matter. Bhoomika gave her final opinion on the company’s matter. Dialogue A conversation between two or more people. Her dialogue stated her opinion about the company’s matter. Expression The action of making known one’s thought or feelings. Her expression was sad at the meeting. Frank An open, honest, and direct speech or writing Bhoomika is very frank with her friends. Recover Return to normal state of health, mind or strength. The company’s economic crisis will be recovered soon. Turmoil A state of great disturbance. The company is facing financial turmoil. Economics The branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth. Bhoomika studied Economics at the State University. Betrayed Expose to danger by treacherously giving information to an enemy.

DAILY LIFE VOCABULARY

Apology Etiquette and Office Vocabulary 

Chapter Vocabulary

Word Meaning Sample Sentence Stressed A state of any mental or emotional tension. Ram seems much stressed after his poor exam. Launch An act of instance of starting something. The government launched a new scheme for the poor people. Error A mistake Ravi found a grammatical error in his new grammar book. Scold Blaming someone for any wrong doing Bhuvan scolded his employees for their poor performance. Accuse Claiming that someone has done something wrong. Bharati accuses her friend Chaya for stealing her necklace. Fair Good and honest Ravi got promoted for doing a fair job. Ashamed Embarrassed or guilty because of one’s action. <