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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS

TROUBLESHOOTING WINDOWS
An installed Windows operating system needs occasional optimization, ongoing maintenance, and troubleshooting when it doesn’t work correctly. Not that long ago, Windows had a bit of a bad rap as being difficult to maintain and challenging to troubleshoot problems. Microsoft used its 20-plus years of experience with operating systems searching for ways to make the tasks of maintaining and troubleshooting less onerous. They’ve done such a good job with the latest versions of Windows that, out of the box, they are easy to optimize and maintain, although troubleshooting and all operating systems share this is still a bit of a challenge. 
  • Maintaining Windows 
Maintaining Windows can be compared to maintaining a new automobile. Of course, a new automobile comes with a warranty, so most of us just take it to the dealer to get work done. For a PC Tech, that means keeping the system patches announced by Microsoft up to date. 
  • Patches & Updates
Updating Windows has been an important, but often neglected, task for computer users. Typically, Microsoft finds and corrects problems with its software in a timely fashion. Because earlier versions of Windows let users decide when, if ever, to update their computers, the net result could be disastrous. The Blaster worm hammered computers all over the world in the summer, causing thousands of computers to start re-booting spontaneously no small feat for a tiny piece of programming! Blaster exploited a flaw in Windows XP/7 and spread like wildfire, but Microsoft had already corrected the flaw with a security update weeks earlier. If users had simply updated their computers, the virus would not have caused such widespread damage. 
  
The Internet has enabled Microsoft to make updates available, and the Windows Update program can grab those updates and patch user systems easily and automatically. Even if you don’t want to allow Windows Update to patch your computer automatically, it’ll still nag you about updates until you patch your system. Microsoft provides the Windows Update utility in Windows 7, windows 8 or 8.1 and Windows 10 also. Once Microsoft released windows 10 for windows 8 or windows 8.1, it began pushing for whole-sale acceptance of automatic updates from Windows Update. You can also start Windows Update manually as per your requirement. 
  • Automatic Update
Updates are so important that Microsoft gives you the option to update Windows automatically. Actually, it nags you about it! Soon after installing windows 8 or 8.1 (a day or two, in my experience), a message balloon will pop up from the task-bar suggesting that you automate updates for windows 10. If you click this balloon, the Automatic Updates Setup Wizard will run, enabling you to configure the update program.  
Automatic (recommended) Windows Update will simply keep your computer patched up and ready to go. This is the best option for most users, although not necessarily good for users of portable computers. 
➣ Download updates for me Windows Update downloads all patches in the background and then, when complete, tells you about them. You have the option at that point to install or install later after shutdown.
Notify me  Windows Update simply flashes you a dialog box that tells you updates are available, but does not download anything until you say go. This is the best option for users of portable computers. You can download files when it’s convenient for you, such as when you’re home rather than traveling on business. 
➣ Turn off Automatic Updates This does precisely what is advertised. You get neither automatic patches nor notification that patches are available. Only use this option on a system that does not or cannot connect to the Internet. If you’re online, your computer needs to be patched! 

When Windows Update works the way Microsoft wants it to work, it scans the Microsoft Web site periodically, downloads patches as they appear, and then installs them on your computer. If you opted for the download but don’t install option, Windows Update simply notifies you when updates are downloaded and ready to install. 
  • DISK CLEANUP UTILITY
To keep a PC running smoothly, regular maintenance is critical. Many users shy away from maintenance tasks, thinking it is a long, drawn out manual affair, but the Disk Cleanup Utility can easily determine which files on a hard drive may no longer be needed and delete those files. In addition to freeing up potentially significant amounts of hard drive space, using Disk Cleanup on a regular basis can significantly improve system performance. Disk Cleanup is available on windows 7, windows 8 or 8.1 & windows 10 also. The utility can be accessed using the methods listed below.   
The Disk Cleanup exe file is located at C:\Windows\System32\cleanmgr.exe.Also you can get this utility by typing cleanmgr in run box. 

Now let’s have a look how to use this Disk cleanup Utility. 

1. Press the Windows+R keys to open the Run dialog, type cleanmgr, and press Enter. 

2. Select the drive that you want to use Disk Cleanup on, and click/tap on OK. (see screenshot below) 
  
NOTE: You will not see this window unless you have more than one drive or partition on your computer. 

3. Let the utility to calculate the free space which will going to be free 

4.Now you will get the option to choose the files needs to be cleaned up. Choose the files & press OK. 

5.Now a you will get a prompt box which will ask you to delete the selected files,  and click/tap on Delete files. 

DISK DEFRAGMENT UTILITY

Disk Defragmenter is a utility in Microsoft Windows designed to increase access speed by rearranging files stored on a disk to occupy contiguous storage locations, a technique called defragmentation. Defragmenting a disk minimizes head travel, which reduces the time it takes to read files from and write files to the disk. The latest Microsoft operating system Windows 8 or 8.1 owns a lot of advanced functions, such as, Metro-style touch-based interface, Windows store, and so on. However, compared to Windows 7, it makes no big breakthrough on Disk Management. It just has the features as follows. 

Basic features
  • Make a partition, delete, wipe partition, format hard drive  
  • Remove drive letter, assign letter to a partition  
  • Convert FAT32 to NTFS, etc.  
Advanced features
  • Enlarge Partition and Reduce Partition.  
  • Convert between basic disk and dynamic disk.  
  • Convert empty MBR to GPT disk, and vice versa.  
  • Convert empty dynamic disk to basic disk. 

So now let’s see the usage of DISK DEFRAGNENT UTILITY.

 1.Start "Run" by means of pressing "Windows Logo Key"+ [R], input "diskmgmt.msc" in the text box, and click "OK". (See from the screenshot below.) The Windows 8 Disk Management will start right away. 

2. The top pane shows you a list of your partitions, referred to as volumes, and the bottom one shows you a graphical representation of your storage devices. 

Resizing a Partition 

Right-click a partition in either pane and select Extend Volume or Shrink Volume to resize it. Other options for manipulating partitions are also located in the right-click menu. 

Extending and shrinking have some basic limitations. You can only shrink a partition if it has enough free space, and you can only extend a partition if it has unallocated space to the right of it on the same drive. You’ll see empty, unallocated space to the right of a partition if you can extend it. Windows can’t extend a basic partition to its left; you’ll need third-party software for that. 
  •   Resize a Partition for Free in Windows 7, 8.x, 10 

Windows 7, Windows 8, 8.1, 10, and Vista include a built-in functionality in Disk Management to shrink and expand partitions. No more 3rd party utilities needed! It’s worth noting that many third-party utilities will be more feature-rich, but you can do the very basic stuff in Windows without adding anything new. 
To get to this utility, open up Control Panel, and type in partition into the search box. You’ll immediately see the link show up: 

If you are in Windows 8 or 8.1 you’ll need to use the Start Screen search. If you are in Windows 10, just use the Start Menu or the Control Panel search. Either way, the same thing will come up. 

Shrink a Partition

In the Disk Management screen, just right-click on the partition that you want to shrink, and select “Shrink Volume” from the menu. 

In the Shrink dialog, you will want to enter the amount you want to shrink by, not the new size. For example, if you want to shrink your 50 GB partition by roughly 10 GB so that it will now be roughly 40 GB, enter 10000 into the box: 

Extend a Partition 

In the Disk Management screen, just right-click on the partition that you want to shrink, and select “Extend Volume” from the menu. On this screen, you can specify the amount that you want to increase the partition by.  

Creating a Partition 

Once you’ve shrunk a partition, you can use the free space to create another one. Just right-click inside the unallocated space and select New Simple Volume 

You’ll see the New Simple Volume wizard, which guides you through setting a size for the partition, assigning a drive letter and formatting it with a file system. 

Deleting a Partition 

You can also right-click a partition and select Delete Volume to delete a partition and free up space. This option deletes every single file on the partition; be careful when using it! 

Changing Drive Letters

Right-click a partition and select Change Drive Letter and Paths to change its drive letter. Click the Change button to select a new drive letter. 

You can use this dialog to assign a permanent drive letter to a removable drive or remove a partition’s drive letter and hide it. 

Formatting a Partition

Use the Format option in a partition’s right-click menu to format it with a new file system and erase its contents. You’ll lose all files on the partition if you do this! 

You can also format partitions by right-clicking them in Windows Explorer and selecting the Format option. 
  •  Uninstallation of program
The proper way to uninstall a program is to use the uninstall routine that is bundled with the program itself. This will remove the files, Windows Registry information, and other configuration from your computer so that there are no conflicts in the future. When a program is installed in Windows, it will add information to the Windows Registry on the proper way to uninstall it. We will discuss about the windows registry later in this session. So let’s have a look into the Program uninstallation process of windows 7 & 8. 

Uninstall a program in Windows 7 and Windows 8

To see a list of the programs that we can uninstall we must first open the Programs and Features control panel. To do this you should follow these steps: 
1. In Windows 7 click on the Start button to open your Start Menu. The Start button looks like this: . 2. When the Start Menu opens click on the Control Panel menu option. In Windows 8, click on the Control Panel app in the Windows 8 Start Screen. Then scroll to the bottom and click on the More Settings option.   
3. When the Control Panel window opens click on the Uninstall a program option option under the Programs category. This option is shown by the arrow in the image below. If you are using the Classic View of the Control Panel, then you would double-click on the Programs and Features icon instead. 

You will now be at the Programs and Features, or Uninstall or change a program, screen as shown below. From this screen you can uninstall programs, view installed updates, and turn Windows features on and off. 

 This screen contains a list of the programs installed on your computer, the company that developed it, and when it was installed. This screen also contains four options in the left navigation bar that are unrelated to uninstalling a program. These four options are: 
  • Control Panel Home 

This will bring you back to the main Control Panel screen.   
  • View installed updates 

If you click on this option you will come to a screen that shows the installed Windows updates on your computer   

  • Turn Windows features on or off 

Windows 7 and Windows 8 is installed with certain features enabled and disabled by default. By clicking on this option you can manage that Vista features you want enabled. 

Now that we know what all the options in this screen do, let’s start learning how to uninstall a program. The first step is look through the list of programs for the one that you would like to uninstall and then left click on it once so that it becomes highlighted. Once you highlight a program you will see two new options next to the Organize and View button called Uninstall and Change  

 If you press the Change button, the program will launch it's setup so that you can modify how the program is presently installed. It is important to note that the Change button does not uninstall a program, but rather allows you to modify how it is currently installed. If you want to uninstall the program you should instead click on the Uninstall button. Once you click on the uninstall button you will be presented with a confirmation asking if you would like to continue as shown in Figure 3 below. For those who like shortcuts, you could just double-click on an entry to start this process as well. For some programs when choose to uninstall it, Windows may prompt you with a message stating Windows needs your permission to continue. At this screen you should click on the Continue button. 

If you do not want to continue, then you should press the No button, and you will come back to the list of programs. If you press the Yes button Vista will start the uninstall routine for the program and begin to remove it. An uninstall screen will typically now open and may ask you questions about how the program should be uninstalled. You typically want to remove the entire program except any data that you may need in the future. As each program's uninstall process is different, it is advised that you read each screen carefully and continue with the uninstall process.  

When uninstalling certain programs you may receive a prompt from Windows stating An unidentified programs wants access to your computer. When you receive this as you uninstall the program, you should click on the Allow button, as it is the uninstaller being started. The program will now continue to uninstall, and when completed you will be back at the list of programs installed on your computer. You will notice, though, that the program you just uninstalled is no longer listed. 

Windows Registry

The Windows Registry is a hierarchical database that contains all of the configurations and settings used by components, services, applications, and pretty much everything in Windows. The registry has two basic concepts to be aware of: Keys and Values. Registry Keys are objects that are basically folders, and in the interface even look exactly like folders. Values are a bit like the files in the folders, and they contain the actual settings. 

The Registry or Windows Registry contains information, settings, options, and other values for programs and hardware installed on all versions of Microsoft Windows operating systems. For example, when a program is installed, a new sub key containing settings like a program's location, its version, and how to start the program, are all added to the Windows Registry. When Windows was initially released, it relied heavily on .ini files to store Windows and Windows programs configurations and settings. Although .ini files are still sometimes used, most Windows programs rely off settings made to the Windows Registry after being installed. To view and make changes to the Windows Registry, the Windows Registry Editor (shown below) may be used. In Windows 3.x, the Registry Editor was known as the Registration Info Editor or Registration Editor. The Registry Editor allows you to view all keys and values that are in the Registry as well as change Windows, program, or driver values you feel are necessary. When you open the Registry Editor for the first time, you’ll see a tree view on the left-hand pane that contains all of the keys, with values on the right-hand side. It’s about as simple as an interface gets. 

The root-level keys that you see in the left-hand side of the screenshot are important. Each one houses a different set of information, so depending on what you are trying to do, you’ll need to know which section to browse down into. 
  • HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT
Windows uses this section to manage file type associations, and it is usually abbreviated HKCR when being referenced in documentation. This key is actually just a link to HKLM\Software\Classes. 
  • HKEY_CURRENT_USER 
Holds the user settings for the currently logged in user, and is usually abbreviated HKCU. This is actually just a link to HKEY_USERS\<SID-FOR-CURRENT-USER>. The most important sub-key in here is HKCU\Software, which contains user-level settings for most of your software. 
  • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
All of the system-wide settings are stored here, and it is usually abbreviated as HKLM. You’ll mostly use the HKLM\Software key to check machine-wide settings. 
  • HKEY_USERS 
Stores all of the settings for all users on the system. You’ll typically use HKCU instead, but if you need to check settings for another user on your computer, you can use this one. 
  • HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG 
Stores all of the information about the current hardware configuration. This one isn’t used very often, and it just a link to HKLM\SYSTEM\Current Control Set\Hardware Profiles\Current. 
  • Creating New Keys and Values 
Right-clicking on any key in the left-hand side of the window will give you a set of options, most of which are fairly straightforward and easy to understand. 

You can create a new Key, which will show up as a folder on the left-hand side, or a new value, which will show up on the right-hand side. Those values can be a little confusing, but there are really only a couple of values that are used regularly. 
  • String Value (REG_SZ) 

This contains anything that will fit into a regular string. The vast majority of the time, you can edit human-readable strings without breaking everything. 
  • Binary Value (REG_BINARY) 

This value contains arbitrary binary data, and you will almost never want to attempt to edit one of these keys. 
  • D WORD (32-bit) Value (REG_D WORD) 

These are almost always used for a regular integer value, whether just 0 or 1, or a number from 0 to 4,294,967,295. 
  • Q WORD (64-bit) Value (REG_Q WORD) 

These are not used very often for registry hacking purposes, but it’s basically a 64-bit integer value. 
  • Multi-String Value (REG_MULTI_SZ) 

These values are fairly uncommon, but it works basically like a notepad window. You can type multi-line textual information into a field like this. 

  • Expandable String Value (REG_EXPAND_SZ) 

These variables have a string that can contain environment variables and is often used for system paths. So a string might be %System-drive%\Windows and would expand to C:\Windows. This means that when you find a value in the Registry that is set to this type, you can change or insert environment variables and they will be “expanded” before the string is used. 

  • The Favorites Menu 
One of the really useful features that nobody seems to notice is the Favorites menu, which is great when you want to check a registry location regularly. What’s really fun is that you can export the list of favorites and use it again on another computer without having to browse down to the keys and add them to the favorites menu. It’s also a great way to bookmark something in the registry if you are looking around in multiple locations, so you can easily flip back to the last place you were at. 
  •  Exporting Registry Files 
You can export registry keys and all of the values contained underneath them by right-clicking on a key and choosing Export. This is really important if you are going to be making changes to your system. 

Once you’ve got your exported registry file, you can double-click on it to enter the information back into the registry, or you can choose Edit to take a look at the contents in Notepad. 

The registry hacking file format is pretty simple value names on the left, and actual values on the right. 
  •  Setting Permissions
Some of the registry keys won’t allow you to make changes by default. This is generally because you don’t have permission to those keys, but you can tweak the permissions scheme if you want by right-clicking a key and choosing Permissions, and then adjusting them from there. 
  •  Backing Up Your Registry
You might have noticed over the years that every site that advises you to hack the registry in some way also tells you to back up your registry. For the most part, all you need to know is how to backup and restore sections of the registry, especially those sections that you might be attempting to edit. 

You can also backup sections of the registry that deal with application settings. Just head down to HKCU\Software or HKLM\Software and find the key that represents the application manufacturer that you’re trying to backup. You can’t export the entire registry to a file, and it wouldn’t work very well to import it again either. You also can’t easily access the files themselves on the hard drive, because they are completely locked. So that’s not going to work. Not all applications store their settings in the registry, but for those that do, you can often save their settings to a backup file using this technique, and then if 

you have to reinstall your computer, you can reinstall the application and just restore the settings by double-clicking on the registry backup file.  
To backup that section of the registry, just right-click on the key on the left-hand pane and choose Export from the menu, saving the file out with a name that you’ll recognize later. We’ll save it as HKCRstar.reg. 

Now you can go ahead and make whatever changes you’d like to test from underneath that key, because you have a backup file. Restoring that backup is as simple as double-clicking on the icon and choosing to restore the information into the registry. 

You can use the same technique for anything in the registry you’d like to backup. 

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