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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Review and View

How to get free products for reviewsAfter you more or less finalize an Excel 2013 worksheet by checking out its formulas and proofing its text, you often want to guard against any unplanned changes by protecting the document. 
Each cell in the worksheet can be locked or unlocked. By default, Excel locks all the cells in a worksheet so that, when you follow these steps, Excel locks the whole thing up tighter than a drum: 

1 Click the Protect Sheet command button in the Changes group on the Review tab on Ribbon or press Alt+RPS. 
Excel opens the Protect Sheet dialog box in which you select the check box options you want to be available when the protection is turned on in the worksheet. By default, Excel selects the Protect Worksheet and Contents of Locked Cells check box at the top of the Protect Sheet dialog box. 
Additionally, the program selects both the Select Locked Cells and Select Unlocked Cells check boxes in the “Allow All Users of This Worksheet To” list box below. 2 (Optional) Click any of the check box options in the “Allow All Users of This Worksheet To” list box that you still want to be functional when the worksheet protection is operational. Some options in the “Allow All User of This Worksheet to” list box that you can check are format cells or insert columns. 

3 If you want to assign a password that must be supplied before you can remove the protection from the worksheet, type the password in the Password to Unprotected Sheet text box. Remember to choose something that you will remember. Don’t be too tricky! 

4 Click OK or press Enter. 
If you type a password in the Password to Unprotected Sheet text box, Excel opens the Confirm Password dialog box. Re-enter the password in the Reenter Password to proceed text box exactly as you typed it in the Password to Unprotected Sheet text box in the Protect Sheet dialog box and then click OK or press Enter. 
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Create manual page breaks in a worksheet 

Page breaks are dividers that break a worksheet into separate pages for printing. Microsoft Excel inserts automatic page breaks based on the paper size, margin settings, scale options, and the positions of any manual page breaks that you insert. To print a worksheet with the exact number of pages that you want, you can adjust the page breaks in the worksheet before you print it. 

To override the automatic page breaks that Excel inserts, you can insert your own manual page breaks, move existing manual page breaks, or delete any manually-inserted page breaks. You can also quickly remove all the manually-inserted page breaks. After you finish working with page breaks, you can return to Normal view. 

Insert a page break

1. Select the worksheet that you want to modify. 
2. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Page Break Preview TIP   You can also click Page Break Preview  on the status bar. 
 NOTE   If you get the Welcome to Page Break Preview dialog box, click OK. To not see this dialog box every time you go to Page Break Preview view, select the Do not show this dialog again check box before you click OK. 
3. Do one of the following: 
 To insert a horizontal page break, select the row below where you want to insert the page break. 
 To insert a vertical page break, select the column to the right of where you want to insert the page break. 
4. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Breaks. 
5. Click Insert Page Break. 
 TIP   You can also right-click the row or column below or to the right of where you want to insert the page break, and then click Insert Page Break. 
 NOTE   If manual page breaks that you insert do not take effect, it may be that the Fit To scaling option has been selected on the Page tab of the Page Setup dialog box (Page Layout tab, Page Setup group, Dialog Box Launcher  ). To use the manual page breaks, change the scaling to adjust to instead. 
Move a page break 
 IMPORTANT   To enable dragging of page breaks to another location in a worksheet, make sure that the cell drag-and-drop feature is enabled. If this feature is not enabled, you may not be able to move any page breaks. 
1. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Page Break Preview. 
2. To move a page break, drag the page break to a new location. 
 NOTE   Moving an automatic page break changes it to a manual page break. 
Delete a manually-inserted page break  NOTE   You can’t delete page breaks that Excel has added automatically. Adding manual page breaks, changing the page orientation, or adjusting column widths and row heights may affect automatically-inserted page breaks. 
To delete a manually-inserted page break, do the following: 
1. Select the worksheet that you want to modify. 
2. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Page Break Preview. 
3. Do one of the following: 
 To delete a vertical page break, select the column to the right of the page break that you want to delete. 
 To delete a horizontal page break, select the row below the page break that you want to delete.  NOTE   You can’t delete an automatic page break. 
4. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Breaks
5. Click Remove Page Break. 
 TIP   You can also remove a page break by dragging it outside of the page break preview area (to the left or right for vertical page breaks, or up or down for horizontal page breaks). If you can’t drag page breaks, make sure that the drag-and-drop feature is enabled.  
Remove all manually-inserted page breaks 
 NOTE   This removes all manual page breaks and resets the worksheet to display only the automatic page breaks. 
1. Click the worksheet that you want to modify. 
2. On the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Page Break Preview. 
3. On the Page Layout tab, in the Page Setup group, click Breaks. 
4. Click Reset All Page Breaks. 
 TIP   You can also right-click any cell on the worksheet, and then click Reset All Page Breaks. 
Return to Normal view 
To return to Normal view after you finish working with the page breaks, on the View tab, in the Workbook Views group, click Normal. 
 TIP   You can also click Normal  on the status bar. 
 NOTE   After working with page breaks in Page Break Preview view, you may still see the page breaks in Normal view because page breaks have been turned on automatically.  
Display or hide page breaks in Normal view 
1. Click the File tab. 
2. Click Options. 
3. In the Advanced category, under Display options for this worksheet, select or clear the Show page breaks check box to turn page breaks on or off in Normal view. 
Learn more about page breaks 
The best way to view all the page breaks in your workbook is in Page Break Preview view. Page Break Preview view uses a different format to display each type of page break: 
 Dashed lines: A dashed line specifies an automatic page break. 
 Solid lines: A solid line specifies a manual page break 
By default, page breaks are not shown in Normal view. However, if you want to view page breaks in Normal view, you can display them in this view. 
In Normal view, you can use the Breaks command (Page Layout tab, Page Setup group) to insert, remove, and reset page breaks. You cannot drag page breaks to another location in Normal view. 
 Freeze panes to lock the first row or column: 
You want to scroll down and see your rows of data, but when you get to the bottom of the screen, your column names in the top row have disappeared. To fix this, you freeze the top row so that it's always visible.  
Click View > Freeze Panes > Freeze Top Row. 
Freeze the top row 
If you'd rather freeze the leftmost column instead, click View > Freeze Panes > Freeze First Column. 
 Now, the line to the right of column A is a little darker than the other lines, meaning that the column to its left is frozen. Freeze the top row and the first column 
To freeze the top row and the first column at the same time, click View > Freeze Panes > Freeze Panes. Freeze as many rows or columns as you want 
Want to freeze multiple rows and/or columns? You can freeze as many as you want, as long as you always start with the top row and the first column. To freeze multiple rows (starting with row 1), select the row below the last row you want frozen and click Freeze Panes. To freeze multiple columns, select the column to the right of the last column you want frozen and click Freeze Panes. 
Say you want to freeze the top four rows and leftmost three columns. You'd select cell D5, and then click View >Freeze Panes > Freeze Panes. Any time you freeze rows and columns, the border below the last frozen row and to the right of the last frozen column appears a little thicker (here, below row 4 and to the right of column C). 
Unfreeze rows or columns 
Want to unfreeze a row, column, or both? Click View > Freeze Panes > Unfreeze Panes. 

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