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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Page Layout

Margins
How to Make Awesome Page Layout Designs in Microsoft Word

Set page margins 
Page margins, the blank space around the edges of the page, can contribute to the impression your document makes, and even how easy it is to read. A few clicks set the margins for a page or an entire document. 
Choose a predefined margin setting 
1. Click Page Layout > Margins. 
The Margins gallery appears. The Normal margin, which is selected by default, displays one inch margins on each side of the page. 
2. To select another page margin, click any of the other options in the Margins gallery, each of which displays the margin measurements. 
NOTES  
 If your document contains multiple sections, the new margin type will only be applied to the current section. If you have multiple sections selected, the new margin type will be applied to each section you have selected. 
 If you want the new margin to be the default every time you open Word, click Margins after you select a new margin, and then click Custom Margins. In the Page Setup box, on the Margin tab, click the “Set as Default” button. 
Create custom margins 
If none of the standard margins are what you want, set your own custom margins. 
1. Click Page Layout > Margins. 
2. At the bottom of the Margins gallery, click Custom Margins. 
3. In the Page Setup box, enter new values for the margins. 

 NOTES  
 If you want the new margin to be the default every time you open Word, click Margins after you select a new margin, and then click Custom Margins. In the Page Setup box, on the Margin tab, click the “Set as Default” button. 
 Most printers require a minimum width for margin settings, because they can't print all the way to the edge of the page. If you try to set margins that are too narrow, Word displays the message One or more margins are set outside the printable area of the page. Choose the Fix button to increase the appropriate margins. The minimum margin settings depend on your printer, printer driver, and paper size. To learn about the minimum margin settings, check your printer manual 
Set margins for facing pages 
Use mirror margins to set up facing pages for double-sided documents, such as books or magazines. The margins of the left page are a mirror image of those on the right page. That is, the inside margins are the same width and the outside margins are the same width. 
1. Click Page Layout > Margins. 
2. Click Mirrored. 
 NOTE    To change margin widths, click Custom Margins at the bottom of the Margins gallery. Enter new values in the Inside and Outside boxes. 
Add a gutter margin for bound documents 
A gutter margin adds extra space to the side margin, top margin, or inside margins of a document that you plan to bind. That helps ensure that text isn't obscured by the binding. 
1. Click Page Layout > Margins > Custom Margins. 
2. In the Gutter box, enter a width for the gutter margin. 
3. In the Gutter position box, click Left or Top. 
 NOTE    The Gutter position box is not available when you use the Mirror margins, 2 pages per sheet, or Book fold option. For those options, the gutter position is determined automatically 
Change the unit of margin measurement 
Set the margin unit of measurement to whatever you find most useful: inches, centimeters, millimeters, points, or picas. 
1. Click File > Options > Advanced. 
2. Under Display, in the Show measurement in units of drop down box, select the unit you want. 
Orientation 
Rotate a page to landscape or portrait orientation 
You can choose either portrait (vertical) or landscape (horizontal) orientation for all or part of your document. 
Change the orientation of your entire document 
1. Click > Page Layout > Orientation. 
 NOTE    When you change the orientation, the cover pages in the Cover Page gallery change to the orientation you’ve chosen. 
Use different orientations in the same document 
There may be times when you want certain pages or sections of your document to have a different orientation from the rest of it. Note that Word puts selected text on its own page, and the surrounding text on separate pages. 
1. Select the pages or paragraphs whose orientation you want to change. 
2. Click Page Layout > Page Setup Dialog Box Launcher. 
3. In the Page Setup box, under Orientation, click Portrait or Landscape
4. Click the Apply to box and click Selected text. 
NOTE    Word automatically inserts section breaks before and after the text that has the new page orientation. If your document is already divided into sections, you can click in a section (or select multiple sections), and then change the orientation for only the sections that you select.   Where are the “section breaks” in a document? When you’ve added section breaks in your document the easiest way to see where they begin and end is to first display all formatting marks: 
1. Click Home > Show/Hide. 2. The section breaks that you’ve added will start and end with this: 
 NOTE    The type of section break shown above is a Continuous section break; there are other kinds of section breaks and will be labeled as such. 
Size 1. On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Paper tab or click on “Page Layout” and click on Size from “Page Setup” command. 
2. Click a paper size. 
Different paper size available are shown in picture given below: 
 NOTE   To change the paper size for part of a document, select the pages and then change the paper size as usual. In the Apply to box, click “selected text”. Microsoft Word automatically inserts section breaks before and after the pages with the new paper size. If your document is already divided into sections, you can click in a section or select multiple sections, and then change the paper size. 
Line Numbers 
In some case while writing our documents we may need to add numbers to each line of a topic, for which Word 2013 have an option in the “Page Setup” command as line numbers: 
Add line numbers 
Add line numbers to an entire document 
1. On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Layout tab. 
2. In the Apply to box, click Whole document. 
3. Click Line Numbers. 
4. Select the Add line numbering check box, and then select the options you want. 
Add line numbers to a selection of text 
1. Select the text you want to number. 
2. On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Layout tab. 
3. In the Apply to box, click Selected text. 
Microsoft Word will add page breaks before and after the numbered lines. 
4. Click Line Numbers. 
5. Select the Add line numbering check box, and then select the options you want. 
Add line numbers to a section 
1. Click in a section or select multiple sections. 
2. On the File menu, click Page Setup, and then click the Layout tab. 
3. In the Apply to box, select the option you want. 
Microsoft Word will add page breaks before and after the numbered lines. 
4. Click Line Numbers. 
5. Select the Add line numbering check box, and then select the options you want. 
 NOTE: You may also select the line numbers option from the tab “Page Layout”   To see the line numbers, switch to print layout view. 
Spelling & Grammar 
You can check the spelling and grammar in the file all at once, or you can let the spelling and grammar 
checkers suggest corrections automatically while you work. Microsoft Office 2013 comes with a dictionary 
of standard grammar and spellings, but they are not comprehensive. For more information on how to 
customize these features, see the following: 
 You can check the spelling and grammar in the file all at once, or you can let the spelling and 
grammar checkers suggest corrections automatically while you work. Microsoft Office 2013 comes with a 
dictionary of standard grammar and spellings, but they are not comprehensive. For more information on 
how to customize these features, see the following: 
Check spelling and grammar all at once 
Checking all the spelling and grammar in a file at the same time is useful when you want to proof your 
text. You can check for possible mistakes and then confirm each correction. You can resolve each error 
that the program finds in different ways.  If you want to fix the error by using one of the suggested words. 
Select the word in the Suggestions list, and then click Change. 
If you want to fix the error by changing the word yourself. Select the Not in Dictionary check box. Edit the 
word. Click Change. 
The misspelled word is a real word that I use. I want all of the Microsoft Office programs to recognize this 
word and not treat it as a misspelling. 
Click Add or Add to Dictionary. 
I want to ignore this misspelled word and move on to the next misspelled word. 
Click Ignore Once. 
I want to ignore all instances of this misspelled word and move on to the next misspelled word. 
Click Ignore All. 
I tend to make this mistake a lot, so I want the program to automatically fix this mistake for me whenever 
I type it. 
Select the correct word in the Suggestions list, and then click Auto-correct. View 
Read Mode: In this mode you would be able to view your document in the best way to read without being able to edit any portion or add text. To exit the Read Mode, just press “Esc” button in your keyboard. 
Print Layout: In this mode you may continue writing and editing your document, this view is the view exactly the way the document will look after printing. 
Web Layout: In this layout the document is shown the way it will look as in a web page. This view is best for viewing your document which has wide tables. You may switch to your Print layout view by just clicking on “Print Layout” from “View” Tab. 

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