Skip to main content


Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  

Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…


A motherboard is one
of the most essential parts of a computer system. It holds together many of the crucial components of a computer, including the central processing unit (CPU), memory and connectors for input and output devices. The base of a motherboard consists of a very firm sheet of non-conductive material, typically some sort of rigid plastic. Thin layers of copper or aluminum foil, referred to as traces, are printed onto this sheet. These traces are very narrow and form the circuits between the various components. In addition to circuits, a motherboard contains a number of sockets and slots to connect the other components.

Parts of a Motherboard

If you were to open up your computer and take out the motherboard, you would probably get pretty confused about all the different parts. To understand how computers work you don't need to know every single part of the motherboard. However, it is good to know some of the most important parts and how the motherboard connects the various parts of a computer system together. Some of the typical parts are described below - they are also labeled in the next photograph:  
  • A CPU socket - the actual CPU is directly soldered onto this socket. Since high speed CPUs generate a lot of heat, there are heat sinks and mounting points for fans right next to the CPU socket. 
  • A power connector to distribute power to the CPU and other components. 
  • Slots for the system's main memory, typically in the form of DRAM chips. 
  • A chip forms an interface between the CPU, the main memory and other components. On many types of motherboards this is referred to as the North-bridge. This chip also contains a large heat sink. 
  • A second chip controls the input and output (I/O) functions. It is not connected directly to the CPU but to the North-bridge. This I/O controller is referred to as the South-bridge. The North-bridge and South-bridge combined are referred to as the chip-set. 
  • Several connectors, which provide the physical interface between input and output devices and the motherboard. The South-bridge handles these connections. 
  • Slots for one or more hard drives to store files. The most common types of connections are Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) and Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA). 
  • A Read-only memory (ROM) chip, which contains the firmware, or startup instructions for the computer system. This is also called the BIOS. 
  • A slot for a video or graphics card. There are a number of different types of slots, including Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) and Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe). 
  •  Additional slots to connect hardware in the form of Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) slots. 

Motherboard form factors: 

When referring to computer hardware, a form factor is a specification of its layout and physical dimensions. Form factors help prevent incompatibilities between multiple hardware manufacturers. As computers advanced, so have motherboards. Below is a listing of the various motherboard form factors and links to additional information about each of them. 

  • AT 
  • ATX 
  • Baby AT 
  • BTX 
  • DTX 
  • ITX 
  • LPX 
  • Full AT 
  • Full ATX 

AT Form factor Commonly referred to as the AT and full-size AT, the Full AT is a motherboard form factor introduced by IBM in August of 1984 and was widely used in the 1980s. The Full AT is 12" wide x 13.8" deep and only fits into a full size AT tower case. Today, this form factor is rarely found or used and has been replaced by ATX and Baby AT. Below is an example of an early IBM AT motherboard.  

ATX Form factor Short for Advanced Technology extended, ATX is a specification used to outline motherboard configuration and dimensions in an effort to improve standardization. First released in July of 1995 by Intel, ATX has since had many revisions. The first was version 2.01 in February 1997, then 2.03 in May 2000, 2.1 in June 2002, and 2.2 in February 2004. ATX boards didn't hit the market in force until mid-1996, when they rapidly began replacing Baby-AT boards in new systems. The original ATX motherboard, often referred to as Standard ATX or Full-ATX, is 12" wide x 9.6" deep (305 x 244 mm) and has the COM port,LPT port, PS/2, and USB mounted directly on the motherboard. 

BABY ATX form factor A replacement for the Full AT motherboard and sometimes referred to as BAT; the Baby AT is a motherboard form factor introduced by IBM in 1985 and used with the 286, 386, 486, and Pentium computers up until the early 1990's. The Baby AT is 8.57" wide x 13.04" deep, which is almost the same as the original IBM XT motherboard with modifications in the screw hole position to fit into At-style case. This board is now considered obsolete and has been replaced by ATX. 

BTX form factor: Short for Balanced Technology Extended, BTX is a motherboard form factor first announced by Intel on September 17, 2003 as a replacement for ATX. BTX was later revised to 1.0a, which was released in February 2004. The BTX features a low profile, more efficient layout to facilitate cooling, a scalable board to accommodate different system sizes, and support for high-mass motherboard components. In September 2006, Intel announced that it was stopping all future development of BTX. 

DTX Form factor: In computing, DTX is a form factor for motherboards. It is a variation of the ATX form factor that was originally developed by AMD in January 2007, designed for smaller computers like home theater PCs (media center computers). With physical dimensions of 8.0 inches by 9.6 inches, a DTX motherboard allowed for two expansion slots. A somewhat smaller version was also developed, called the Mini-DTX, having dimensions of 8.0 inches by 6.7 inches. The DTX form factor provided a lower cost of manufacturing because it used fewer layers of printed circuit board wiring. It was intended to be an industry standard for small computers, like the Shuttle "SFF" design. DTX motherboards are backward compatible with the ATX form factor, fitting into the same-sized cases, and utilizing the same 24pin power connector. 

ITX Form factor: Short for Information Technology extended, ITX is a small motherboard form factor from VIA Technologies that was first introduced in November 2001 with the Mini-ITX. Later versions of ITX include the Nano-ITX released in March 2003, the Mobile-ITX released in March 2004, and the PicoITX released in April 2007. With the compact configuration of ITX motherboards, they are typically used in low-cost small setups found in cars, network devices, set-top boxes, and other small computers. Below is a picture and comparison of all of the ITX motherboards from VIA.

Here is some sub categories of ITX Form factors: 
  • Mini-ITX 
The Mini-ITX motherboard form factor that measures 17 cm x 17 cm (6.75" x 6.75") in size. They typically have two memory (RAM) slots, 1 PCI-Express or mini-PCI slot, several USB ports, and one network port. Some Mini-ITX motherboards include an on-board VGA port and an HDMI port. An important feature of a Mini-ITX motherboard is its low power consumption, using less than 25 watts of power, with some as few as five watts. 
  • Nano-ITX 
The Nano-ITX motherboard form factor measures 12cm x 12cm (4.7" x 4.7") and has removed the legacy ports, moved to mini-PCI and SODIMM. 
  • Pico-ITX 
The Nano-ITX motherboard form factor measures 7.2cm x 10cm (2.8" x 3.9") and is 75% smaller than the Mini-ITX form factor. The motherboard supports any processor that uses VIA's NanoBGA2 technology with speeds up to 1.5GHz with 128KB L1 and L2 cache. Pico-ITX uses DDR2 400/533 SO-DIMM memory with support for up to 1GB and AGP video with built-in MPEG-2, 4, and WMV9 decoding acceleration. 
  • Mobile-ITX (2.4" x 2.4") 
The Mobile-ITX motherboard form factor measures 7.2cm x 10cm (2.8" x 3.9") and has no computer ports unless an I/O carrier board is used. The Mobile-ITX design is intended for medical, transportation and military embedded markets. 

LPX Form factor: LPX is a motherboard form factor originally developed by Western Digital when it was making motherboards that was used in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s. The LPX motherboard is 9" wide x 13" deep, uses a riser card, and has different placement of the video, parallel, serial, and PS/2 ports on the back when compared to other motherboards. Below is a picture of a Packard Bell LPX motherboard, as can be seen this motherboard has one large brown slot for the riser card. Using a riser card allowed the expansion cards to be installed parallel to the motherboard, which is why the LP in LPX stands for "Low Profile." The low profile allowed computers using this motherboard to be much slimmer than computers using a Baby-AT motherboard. 

The LPX motherboard was not the only motherboard to have a riser card. The NLX motherboard also has a riser card, however, the NLX motherboard actually plugged into the riser card instead of having the riser card on the motherboard. 

Full AT Form factor: Commonly referred to as the AT and full-size AT, the Full AT is a motherboard form factor introduced by IBM in August of 1984 and was widely used in the 1980s. The Full AT is 12" wide x 13.8" deep and only fits into a full size AT tower case. Today, this form factor is rarely found or used and has been replaced by ATX and Baby AT. Below is an example of an early IBM AT motherboard. 

ATX Form factor: Short for Advanced Technology extended, ATX is a specification used to outline motherboard configuration and dimensions in an effort to improve standardization. First released in July of 1995 by Intel, ATX has since had many revisions. The first was version 2.01 in February 1997, then 2.03 in May 2000, 2.1 in June 2002, and 2.2 in February 2004. ATX boards didn't hit the market in force until mid-1996, when they rapidly began replacing Baby boards in new systems. The original ATX motherboard, often referred to as Standard ATX or Full-ATX, is 12" wide x 9.6" deep (305 x 244 mm) and has the COM port, LPT port, PS/2, and USB mounted directly on the motherboard. The image below is an example of the ATX form factor. 

Motherboard Chip-set Concept:  

A chip-set is a set of chips on the motherboard that collectively controls the memory, buses on the motherboard, and some peripherals. A few motherboard manufacturers, such as Intel and AMD, make their own chip-sets. But other motherboard manufacturers use chip-sets made by another manufacturer. The major chip-set manufacturers are Intel (, AMD (, NVIDIA (, and SiS (, in that order. Intel has produced far too many chip-sets to list them here. To see a complete comparison chart of all Intel chip-sets, start at the Intel link A few of the more popular chip-sets are listed here: High-performance chip-sets. The X58 chip-set supports the Intel LGA1366 socket, the Core i7 processors, and PCI Express Version 2. It can also support either SLI or Cross Fire technologies. (SLI and Cross Fire are two competing technologies that allow for multiple video cards installed in one system.) The X58 chip-set does not control memory because the memory controller is embedded in the Core i7 processor. The 975X Express chip-set supports the Pentium Extreme Edition processor, multiple video cards, and up to 8 GB of memory. Mainstream desktop chip-sets. The P45, P43, P35, G45, and G31 chip-sets support Core 2 Quad and Core 2 Duo Intel processors. P45, P43, and G45 can support up to 16 GB of DDR3 or DDR2 memory. The P35 chip-set supports up to 8 GB of DDR3 or DDR2 memory. It also supports the Core 2 Extreme processor. The G31 chip-set supports up to 4 GB of DDR2 memory. The Q45 chip-set uses DDR3 or DDR2 memory and supports the Core 2 Duo and Core 2 Quad processors. All these chip-sets use socket LGA775. Value desktops. The 910GL, 845E, 845G, and 865G chip-sets support the Pentium 4, Celeron, and Celeron D processors in low-end systems. The 910GL chip-set uses the LGA775 socket. The 845E, 845G, and 865G chip-sets use the 478PGA socket. All these chip-sets use DDR memory. Older value desktops. The 845 and 845GL chip-sets support the Pentium 4 or Celeron processors in a low-end system using the 478PGA socket. They support up to 2 GB of DDR memory. Beginning with the Intel i800 series of chip-sets, a hub is used to connect buses. All I/O buses (input/output buses) connect to a hub, which connects to the system bus. This hub is called the hub interface, and the architecture is called Accelerated Hub Architecture. The fast end of the hub, which contains the graphics and memory controller, connects to the system bus and is called the hub’s North Bridge. The slower end of the hub, called the South Bridge, contains the I/O controller hub. All I/O devices, except display and memory, connect to the hub by using the slower South Bridge. Notice the primary PCI Express slot, the slot designated for the video card, has direct access to the North Bridge, but other PCI Express slots must access the processor by way of the slower South Bridge. On a motherboard, when you see two major chips for the chip-set, one is controlling the North Bridge and the other is controlling the South Bridge. Other chip-set manufacturers besides Intel also use the North Bridge and South Bridge architecture for their chip-sets. The latest Intel chip-set for desktop PCs is the X58 chip-set, which is used by the motherboard the board comes with a fan that can be clipped to the top of the North Bridge to help keep the chip-set cool. With previous Intel chip-sets, the memory controller was part of the North Bridge, but the Core i7 processor contains the memory controller within the processor housing.  Now we are going to discuss about South-bridge & North-bridge: 

South-bridge: South-bridge is an Intel chip-set that manages the basic forms of input/output (I/O) such as Universal Serial Bus (USB), serial, audio, Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), and Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) I/O in a computer. South-bridge is one of two chip-sets that are collectively called North-bridge /South-bridge. North-bridge controls the processor, memory, Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, Level 2 cache, and all Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) activities. Unlike North-bridge, South-bridge consists of one chip, which sits on North-bridge's PCI bus. 

The Intel Hub Architecture (IHA) has replaced the North-bridge/South-bridge chip-set. The IHA chip-set has two parts also, the Graphics and AGP Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) and the I/O Controller Hub (ICH). The IHA architecture is used in Intel's 800 series chip-sets, which is the first chip-set architecture to move away from the North-bridge/South-bridge design

North-bridge: North-bridge is an Intel chip-set that communicates with the computer processor and controls interaction with memory, the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus, Level 2 cache, and all Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) activities. North-bridge communicates with the processor using the front side bus (FSB). North-bridge is one part of a two-part chip-set called North-bridge/South-bridge. South-bridge handles the input/output (I/O) functions of the chip-set. 

The Intel Hub Architecture (IHA) has replaced the North-bridge/South-bridge chip-set. The IHA chip-set also has two parts: the Graphics and AGP Memory Controller Hub (GMCH) and the I/O Controller Hub (ICH). The IHA architecture is used in Intel's 800 series chip-sets, which is the first chip-set architecture to move away from the North-bridge/South-bridge design. 

Buses & Expansion Slots: 

An opening in a computer where a circuit board can be inserted to add new capabilities to the computer. Nearly all personal computers except portables contain expansion slots for adding more memory, graphics capabilities, and support for special devices. The boards inserted into the expansion slots are called expansion boards, expansion cards, cards, add-ins, and add-ons. Expansion slots for PCs come in two basic sizes: half- and full-size. Half-size slots are also called 8-bit slots because they can transfer 8 bits at a time. Full-size slots are sometimes called 16-bit slots. In addition, modern PCs include PCI slots for expansion boards that connect directly to the PCI bus. 

The earliest PC had only a single simple bus. Today’s PCs have four or five buses, each with different speeds, access methods, and protocols. As you have seen in previous chapters, backward compatibility dictates that older buses be supported on a motherboard, even when faster, better buses exist. All this makes for a maze of buses on a motherboard. 

Motherboard BUS system: When referring to a computer, the bus also known as the address bus, data bus, or local bus is a data connection between two or more devices connected to the computer. For example, a bus enables a computer processor to communicate with the memory or a video card to communicate with the memory. 

The bus contains multiple wires (signal lines) that contain addressing information that describes the memory location of where the data is being sent or where it is being retrieved. Each wire in the bus carries a single bit of information, which means the more wires a bus has the more information it can address. For example, a computer with a 32-bit address bus can address 4GB of memory, and a computer with a 36-bit bus can address 64GB of memory. 

A bus is capable of being a parallel or serial bus and today all computers utilize two bus types, an internal bus or local bus and an external bus, also called the expansion bus. An internal bus enables communication between internal components such as a video card and memory. An external bus is capable of communicating with external components such as a USB or SCSI device. A computer or device's bus speed is listed as a MHz, e.g. 100MHz FSB. The throughput of a bus is measured in bits per second or megabytes per second. 

Expansion Slots: Alternatively referred to as a bus slot or expansion port.  An expansion slot is an opening located inside a computer on the motherboard or riser board that allows additional boards to be connected. For example, if you wanted to install a new video card in the computer you'd purchase a video expansion card and install that card into the compatible expansion slot. Below is a listing of some of the expansion slots commonly found in IBM compatible computers as well as other brands of computers and the devices commonly associated with those slots.  

List of Expansion Slots: 

  • AGP 
  • AMR 
  • CNR 
  • EISA
  • SA
  • PCI 
  • PCIE 
Here we are discussing about various expansion slots. 

AGP Slot: Accelerated Graphics Port, AGP is an advanced port designed for Video cards and 3D accelerators. Designed by Intel and introduced in August of 1997, AGP introduces a dedicated point-to-point channel that allows the graphics controller direct access to the system memory 

The AGP channel is 32-bits wide and runs at 66 MHz, which is a total bandwidth of 266 MBps and much greater than the PCI bandwidth of up to 133 MBps. AGP also supports two optional faster modes, with a throughput of 533 MBps and 1.07 GBps. It also allows 3-D textures to be stored in main memory rather than video memory.  AGP is available in three different versions, the original AGP version mentioned above, AGP 2.0 that was introduced in May of 1998, and AGP 3.0 (AGP 8x) that was introduced in November of 2000. AGP 2.0 added 4x signaling and was capable of operating at 1.5V and AGP 3.0 was capable of double the transfer speeds. 

AMR Slot: Released September 8, 1998, AMR is short for Audio/Modem Riser and allows OEMs to make one card that has the functionality of either Modem or Audio or both Audio and Modem on one card. This specification allows for the motherboard to be manufactured at a lower cost and free up industry standard expansion slots in the system for other additional plug-in peripherals. The picture an example of what the AMR slot looks like on the Motherboard. This slot is often on the far edge of the motherboard, next to a PCI slot. 

CNR Slot: Communication and Network Riser, CNR is a specification that supports Audio, Modem, USB, and LAN interfaces of core logic chip-sets. This technology and the CNR slot was first introduced by Intel February 7, 2000 and was mainly developed by leading hardware and software developers who helped release the AMR (Audio Modem Riser) slot. In the picture below is an example of a CNR slot, which is labeled as "CNR_SLOT" on this motherboard. 

EISA Slot: Extended Industry Standard Architecture, EISA or Extended ISA is a standard first announced in September of 1988 for IBM compatible computers that competed with the MCA bus. The EISA bus is found on Intel 80386, 80486 and early Pentium computers and was designed by nine competitors. These competitors were AST Research, Compaq, Epson, Hewlett Packard, NEC, Olivetti, Tandy, WYSE, and Zenith Data Systems. The EISA bus provided 32-bit slots at an 8.33 MHz cycle rate for use with 386DX or higher processors. EISA can also accommodate a 16-bit ISA card in the first row. Although the EISA bus is backwards compatible and not a proprietary bus, it never became widely used and is no longer found in computers today. 

ISA Slot: Stands for "Industry Standard Architecture." ISA is a type of bus used in PCs for adding expansion cards. For example, an ISA slot may be used to add a video card, a network card, or an extra serial port. The original 8-bit version of PCI uses a 62 pin connection and supports clock speeds of 8 and 33 MHz 16bit PCI uses 98 pins and supports the same clock speeds. 

PCI Slot: The most widely used hardware interface for connecting peripheral devices. Used in computers of all sizes, PCI provides a shared data path between the CPU and peripheral controllers, such as the network and display adapter (graphics card). Using PCI, a computer can support both new PCI cards while continuing to support Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) expansion cards, an older standard. Designed by Intel, the original PCI was similar to the VESA Local Bus. However, PCI 2.0 is no longer a local bus and is designed to be independent of microprocessor design. PCI is designed to be synchronized with the clock speed of the microprocessor. In below the various PCI’s Speed has discussed. 

PCIe slots : PCI Express is a serial bus designed to replace PCI and AGP and is available in different formats: x1, x2, x4, x8, x12, x16, and x32. The data transmitted over PCI-Express is sent over wires called lanes in full duplex mode (both directions at the same time). Each lane is capable of around 250MBps and the specification can be scaled from 1 to 32 lanes. With 16 lanes PCI Express supports a bandwidth of up to 4,000MBps in both directions 

Parts & Functions of the motherboard:

The computer Motherboard is one of the most important part of the Personal computer (PC).It is a hardware of the computer installed inside the system unit (CPU).This motherboard hardware act as the main board or the central or core assembly of the computer system unit. In other words inside of the CPU case there are a lot of other hardware's connected to the MOBO, namely: Hard Disk Drive (HDD), CD/DVD ROM, USB Card reader, FDD Drive, processor, RAM, LAN card, Wireless LAN card, USB expansion board, VGA Card, and the Power Supply Unit (PSU).These are all types of hardware's inside the system unit of the Personal Computer. Computer motherboard designed to take advantage of the most demand application of a program. Just like the movie games as high innovative applications of computer programming. As the form factor of motherboard as a series of versions of the motherboard from AT, ATX, BTX, LPX, and NLPX. Compatible words being broadcast, that's why it is the motherboard will synchronize the speed of processor, RAM, and Video Card (VGA). Unlike only if the motherboard is built-in through the Input/output ports. 

So, let’s talk about the Motherboard parts and function to enable you to familiarize the parts and function. 
1. I/O ports- This is located in the rear panel of the CPU, this use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.  

• PS/2 ports- These are used to connect the mouse (green color) and the keyboard (purple color) 

DB 25 female connector (printer port)-This is use to connect the impact printer, one of that the DOT MATRIX printer, ex. the Epson LX 300 + 

DB 9 male connector (Serial or com1 port)-This use to connect a serial device of the computer, such as the serial mouse and external modem. 

VGA port (built-in)- This is use to interface the DB cord of the monitor screen or to connect the monitor screen of the computer. The fastest video card versions are based on the standard of the VGA slots, ex: the AGP and PCI’e card. 

USB 2.0 × 2 ports- These are the ports of the USB devices of the computer. Attached externally of the system unit, one of that are the USB flash drives. As of now the versions or speed of the USB are the 1.0 and 2.0 compatible. 

• LAN port- This called as Local Area Network of the computer. This is use to connect the numbers of node or workstations (PC) to form a local area network of the computer with in their area. Using type of communication media such as the network switch and router. 

• Audio Port- This is use to connect the speaker, mike, and MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) device of the computer. 

2. ATX Power connector(4 pin)- This is use to connect the 4 pin of the power supply unit(PSU) .This is separate of the 20 or 24 pin of ATX power supply to provide DC voltage of computer processor. 
3.  Processor’s ZIF Socket- Part of MOBO use to hold the processor or CPU chip (Zero Insertion Force).The compatibility of the socket depends of the computer processor type. Such as the AM2 socket of the AMD and the socket 775 of the Intel company. 
4. Memory slot (DIMM) - This is called as Dual Inline Memory Module, this is the slot of computer memory or what we called RAM. The memory slot depends of the type of the memory. Such as the PC 133 SDRAM and PC 400 SDRAM-DDR 1. 
5. ATX Power connector (24 or 28 pin) - A group of connector of the MOBO. This is separate of the 4 pin power assignments. It provides a DC power output to the system board (SB) from the output of the Power Supply Unit. 
6. Name of the Vendor- this is the manufacturer name. This is important to know the manufacturer or vendor. So you can download through the internet site the driver software of the motherboard. 
7. CMOS/BIOS BATTERY- In this part, the CMOS/BIOS battery is hold, so that it can provide 3 volts direct current/voltage to the CMOS IC. To preserve the BIOS settings of the computer. Such as the time module, hardware information and settings/parameter, etc. 
CMOS-Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor 
BIOS - Basic Input/output system. Is a set of a program stored in CMOS IC, use to preserve the BIOS configuration of the computer 
CMOS BATTERY PART NUMBER- lithium dry cell CR 2032 3 volts. 
8. IDE connector (Integrated Drive Electronics)- This connector is use to connect the IDE cable of the HDD(Hard Disk Drive) or CD/DVD ROM to the Mother Board IDE. 
9. Front panel connectors(F-Panel)- This is use to connect the Power LED,HDD LED, Power Switch, and Reset switch of the computer system unit(CPU). 
10. SATA connector-This is Serial Advance Technology Attachment. The new standard of the IDE connection array of the computer HDD (SATA HDD) to the motherboard system. 
11. CMOS/BIOS jumper- This is use to disable the BIOS default setup. Such as to disabled the Supervisor password of the BIOS.

How to disable password before the BIOS setup 
• Turn off CPU 
• Change jumper to clear 
•  Remove the CMOS battery 
•  Reinsert the BIOS battery 
•  Change jumper to normal 
•  Power up computer 
•  Press “del” or “F2” to enter BIOS setup. 
12. USB connector (header) - This is use to connect the USB port of the front panel USB 2.0 x 2 port. 

13. FDD connector- The connector of the FDD cable through the system board. Normally  There are 34 pins out of it to connect the 3.5” 1.44mb Floppy Disk Drive. 

14. PCI slots- a part of the computer motherboard use to connect the I/O cards of the computer. Such as LAN card, WIFI card, USB expansion card, and sound card. 
15. Motherboard Version number- here you can get the version of the motherboard driver software. So that you can download it exactly to the manufacturer website. 
16. CMOS/BIOS IC- This is the type of BIOS IC being use by the computer motherboard.A set of a program being installed in this IC to preserved the BIOS configuration settings of the computer. Such as the speed of the CPU chip and RAM, etc. 
17. AMR slot- This is the AUDIO Modem Riser. Being use to demodulate and modulate the analog audio of the computer. 
18. PCI express slot- A part of the computer that hold the computer video card (VGA), the PCI’e card. The latest and the fastest card being installed and most compatible with 3d and 4g gaming of the computer. The old video card type is the AGP or Accelerated Graphic Ports and the standard of the PCI’e. 
19. North Bridge IC- Is a passion name as being north of the PCI buses or the PCI slots of the motherboard. The true name of the north bridge is MCI or Memory Controller Hub. Assigned to manage and control the computer memory before the processing of the CPU chip. 
20. South Bridge IC- Is a passion name as being south of the PCI buses or PCI slots. The true name of the south bridge is I/O Controller HUB (ICH). It is a type of microchip task to control all the Input and output devices of the computer. Such as the keyboard and mouse. And the monitor screen of the computer that commonly found at the rear back of the CPU or system unit.  
Installing Motherboard: The motherboard is the backbone of your entire PC, connected to every other component, so it's vital that you get things right now to avoid trouble further down the line. 
1. Unpack the board
Open your motherboard’s box. You’ll see lots of cables, a driver CD, a metal blanking plate with holes cut out and a manual. Take these components out and put them to one side, as you’ll need them later on. The motherboard will be inside an anti-static bag and resting on top of anti-static foam. Slide the motherboard out of the bag, but leave it attached to the foam for now. Place the motherboard and foam on top of the anti-static bag, and take out the metal blanking plate.

2. Measure blanking plate

The blanking plate fits into the case, and gives you access only to the ports that your motherboard has. However, some motherboard manufacturers use generic blanking plates that fit their entire range of boards. With these, you may need to remove some metal covers to give access to your motherboard’s ports. The easiest way to see is to hold the blanking plate up to the motherboard until the cutouts match the ports on your board. The blanking plate should be pushed against the motherboard with the ridge pointing out, so any text is readable.  

3. Remove unnecessary bits

If you need to remove any parts of the blanking plate, you should do that now. You’ll have two options for doing this. First, you may have to remove a bit of metal, in a similar way to the metal blanking plates on your case. These should be rocked gently out until the metal snaps. Second, some ports may be covered by a flap. In this case, the flap should be bent inwards (towards where the motherboard will be). Make sure that you bend it far enough for the motherboard’s port to be given enough clearance to pass underneath. 

4. Install the blanking plate
From the inside of the case, you need to take the blanking plate and push it into the gap at the rear of the case. Remember to align it so that it’s the same way up as when you measured it against your motherboard. The ridge round the outside of the plate should clip into the hole. Be warned that this can be really fiddly and the blanking plates don’t always fit perfectly. It should, however, clip into place and remain stable without any support. 

5. Measure where the motherboard goes
Next, you need to see where the screw holes for the motherboard will go. Lie the case flat on the desk and make sure that all the internal cables are out of the way. When you’ve got a clear case, take the motherboard off its foam backing and slide it gently into the case. Make sure that its rear ports are pushed up against the blanking plate correctly. Take a note of where the screw holes in the motherboard go, and remove the board. Place it back on its foam. 

6. Fit the risers or screw
You need to fit risers where you noted the screw holes. These will be included with the case and look like tall copper screws. Their job is to hold the motherboard off the bottom of the case, so it isn’t shorted out when its contacts touch the metal. The risers simply screw into the pre-drilled holes in the case. Use as many risers as there are screw holes in the motherboard, making sure that you screw them tightly into position with your fingers. 

7. Slide the motherboard into place 
Put the motherboard back in the case, making sure that all its screw holes have risers underneath. If some are missing, check to make sure that you haven’t screwed the risers into the wrong place. You’ll probably notice that the motherboard has a tendency to be slightly off from the risers. This is normal, and is caused by pressure from the back plate pushing against the motherboard. Simply line up the motherboard’s ports with the back plate and push the motherboard towards it until the screw holes line up. This will take a bit of gentle force. 

8. Screw the motherboard down 
With the motherboard in place, you can start to screw it in. Start with the corners, holding the motherboard firmly, so that its screw holes line up with the risers that you put in. When screwing the screws in, don’t use too much pressure as you don’t want to break the motherboard. Ideally, you want the screws tight enough for the board to be secure, but not so tight that it feels as though the board is going to start cracking. Once you’ve done the corners, you can put screws in the other holes. How many you put in is up to you, but you shouldn’t need to do all of them to make the motherboard secure. Keep going until the motherboard is firmly in place. 

9. Identify ATX connectors 
With the motherboard in place, you’re ready to connect it to the power supply. There are two connectors that you’ll need to plug in. The first is the ATX connector. On modern motherboards, you need a 24-pin connector. There’s only one of these on the power supply. However, as older motherboards only required a 20-pin connector, there’s usually a four-pin connector that can be detached. Make sure that this is connected and that you have an unbroken 24-pin connector.

 10. Plug in ATX connector 
You need to plug this 24-pin connector into the matching connector on the motherboard. This should be easy to find, but it’s usually located by the IDE ports on the right-hand side of the motherboard. The ATX connector will only plug in one way, so you can’t get it wrong. Once it’s lined up, the connector should plug in smoothly. There’s a clip on it to hold it in place. This will require gentle pressure to get it to clip in, but no more. If you’re having to force the cable, then the chances are that you’ve got the connector the wrong way round. Once the cable is in place, give it a gentle tug to make sure that it’s secure.
11. Identify secondary connector
Modern motherboards also have a secondary power connector. On most boards this is a single four-pin connector, but some require eight-pin connectors. Check to see what your power supply has, as you may need to buy an adapter. In a similar way to the 24-pin connector, the eight-pin connector on power supplies can be split into two. If your motherboard has only a four-pin connector, you’ll have to split it into two halves. Only one of these will plug into the motherboard. 

12. Connect secondary connector
Locate the secondary motherboard power connector. Your board’s manual will tell you exactly where it’s located, but on most motherboards it’s near the processor socket. Next, plug the power supply’s secondary connector into it. This plug will only go in one way, so there’s no chance of getting it wrong. The connector should slide gently into the plug. You’ll need to apply a bit of force in order to get the clip to lock into place, and you should hear it click when it’s in properly. System panel connector Alternatively referred to as the “f panel” or “front panel connector”, the system panel connector or system panel header controls a computer power button, reset button, and LED's. The System panel cables, as shown in the picture are two wire cables that are color coded to help identify where they connect to the motherboard system panel connector. The black or white wire is the ground (GND) wire and the colored wire is the powered wire. The cables, colors, and connections vary depending on the computer case and motherboard you have, however, generally include the cables mentioned below. 
  • Types of system panel cables HDD LED (IDE LED) - The LED activity light for the hard drive. This is the LED that flashes as information is being written and read from the hard drive. Power LED (PLED) - The LED power light, which indicates when the computer is on, off, or in Standby. Power SW (PWRSW) - Controls the power button that allows you to turn on and off the computer. Reset SW - Handles the reset button to restart the computer. Speaker - The internal speaker used to sound the beep noises you hear from your computer when it is booting. 
Direction do the system panel cables connect The system panel cables are not keyed so can be plugged in any direction. With the exception of the LED  
Cables, the system panel connector cables can be plugged in any direction. If the LED cables are plugged in backward, the LED light will not work. Usually with most modern motherboards you can identify what cable goes where by looking at the motherboard for a + and a - symbol. The colored wire (powered wire) would connect to the + symbol and a white or black cable (ground) would connect to the - symbol. 


Popular posts from this blog

What if Analysis

What-If Analysis What-If Analysis in Excel allows you to try out different values (scenarios) for formulas. The following example helps you master what-if analysis quickly and easily.  Use scenarios to consider many different variables  A scenario is a set of values that Excel saves and can substitute automatically in cells on a worksheet. You can create and save different groups of values on a worksheet and then switch to any of these new scenarios to view different results. 
Create Different Scenarios 
Note: You can simply type in a different revenue and Cost into cell B2 and B3 respectively to see the corresponding result of a scenario in cell B4. However, what-if analysis enables you to easily compare the results of different scenarios.  
I. On the Data tab, click What-If Analysis and select Scenario Manager from the list. The Scenario Manager Dialog box appears  II. Add a scenario by clicking on Add.  III. Type a name (e.g. “First Case”), select cell B2 and B3 (represents “Revenue” and “…


Asking For and Giving Opinions on Likes and Dislikes

Words Meaning Sample Sentence Opinion A statement or judgment formed about some matter. Bhoomika gave her final opinion on the company’s matter. Dialogue A conversation between two or more people. Her dialogue stated her opinion about the company’s matter. Expression The action of making known one’s thought or feelings. Her expression was sad at the meeting. Frank An open, honest, and direct speech or writing Bhoomika is very frank with her friends. Recover Return to normal state of health, mind or strength. The company’s economic crisis will be recovered soon. Turmoil A state of great disturbance. The company is facing financial turmoil. Economics The branch of knowledge concerned with the production, consumption, and transfer of wealth. Bhoomika studied Economics at the State University. Betrayed Expose to danger by treacherously giving information to an enemy.


Apology Etiquette and Office Vocabulary 

Chapter Vocabulary

Word Meaning Sample Sentence Stressed A state of any mental or emotional tension. Ram seems much stressed after his poor exam. Launch An act of instance of starting something. The government launched a new scheme for the poor people. Error A mistake Ravi found a grammatical error in his new grammar book. Scold Blaming someone for any wrong doing Bhuvan scolded his employees for their poor performance. Accuse Claiming that someone has done something wrong. Bharati accuses her friend Chaya for stealing her necklace. Fair Good and honest Ravi got promoted for doing a fair job. Ashamed Embarrassed or guilty because of one’s action. <