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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

MICROPROCESSORS



MICROPROCESSORS
The CPU or Central Processing Unit is the "brain" of the computer, it is the 'compute' in computer. Without the CPU, you have no computer. Computer CPU's (processors) are composed of thin layers of thousands of transistors. Transistors are tiny, nearly microscopic bits of material that will block electricity when the electricity is only a weak charge, but will allow the electricity pass through when the electricity is strong enough. The transistors within the CPU transition from being a non-conductor (resist the electricity) to a conductor (they conduct electricity) when the electrical charge is strong enough. The material that CPU transistors are made of loses its resistance to electricity and becomes a conductor when the electricity gets strong enough. The ability of these materials (called semiconductors) to transition from a non-conducting to a conducting state allows them to take two electrical inputs and produce a different output only when one or both inputs are switched on. A computer CPU is composed of millions (and soon billions) of transistors. Because CPU's are so small, they are often referred to as microprocessors. So, the terms processor, microprocessor and CPU are interchangeable. AMD, IBM, Intel, Motorola, SGI and Sun are just a few of the companies that make most of the CPU's used for various kinds of computers including home desktops, office computers, mainframes and supercomputers. Modern CPU's are what are called 'integrated chips'. The idea behind an integrated chip is that several types of components are integrated into a single piece of silicon (a single CPU), such as one or more execution cores, arithmetic logic unit (ALU) or 'floating point' processor, registers, instruction memory, cache memory and the input/output controller (bus controller). Each transistor is a receives a set of inputs and produces output. When one or more of the inputs receive electricity, the combined charge changes the state of the transistor internally and you get a result out the other side. This simple effect of the transistor is what makes it possible for the computer to count and perform logical operations, all of which we call processing. A modern computer's CPU usually contains an execution core with two or more instruction pipelines, a data and address bus, a dedicated arithmetic logic unit (ALU, also called the math co-processor), and in some cases special high-speed memory for caching program instructions from RAM. The CPU's in most PC's and servers are general purpose integrated chips composed of several smaller dedicated-purpose components which together create the processing capabilities of the modern computer.

Microprocessor Generation

CPU manufacturers engineer new ways to do processing that requires some significant re-engineering of the current chip design. When they create this new design that changes the number of bits the chip can handle, or some other major way in which the chip performs its job, they are creating a new generation of processors. 

➣1971: Intel 4004 processor
➣1974: Intel 8080 processor 
➣1976: Intel 8085 processor 
➣1978: Intel 8086 / 8088 processors 
➣1982: Intel 80186 processor 
➣1982: Intel 80286 processor 
➣1982: AMD begins manufacturing IBM processors 
➣1985: Intel 80386 DX processor 
➣1988: Intel 80386 SX processor 
➣1989: Intel 80486 DX processor 
➣1989: Cyrix FasMath 83D87 & 83S8 math co-processors 
➣1990: Intel 80386 SL processor 
➣1991: Intel 80486 SX processors 
➣1991: AMD's Am386 processor 
➣1992: Intel 80486 SL processor 
➣1992: Cyrix 486SLC & Cyrix 486DLC 
➣1993: Intel Pentium processor 1993: AMD Am486 processor 
➣1993: Cyrix 486DRx2 & Cyrix 486SLC 
➣1995: Cyrix 5x86 
➣1995: Intel Pentium Pro processor 
➣1995: AMD-K5 processor 
➣1995: Cyrix 6x86 
➣1996: Cyrix MediaGX processor 
➣1997: Intel Pentium II processor 
➣1997: AMD-K6 processor 
➣1998: Intel Pentium II Xeon Server processor
➣1998: Intel Pentium Celeron processor
➣1999: Intel Pentium III processor
➣1999: Intel Pentium Celeron Mobile processor 
➣1999: Intel Pentium III Xeon processor
➣1999: AMD Athlon 
➣1999: Cyrix M3 
➣2000: Intel Pentium 4 processor
➣2001: Intel Xeon processor
➣2001: Intel Itanium processor 
➣2001: AMD Athlon MP 
➣2002: Intel Itanium 2 processor
➣2002: AMD Athlon XP 
➣2003: Intel Pentium M (Mobile) processor 
➣2003: Intel Pentium 4 processor with Hyper-Threading 
➣2003: AMD Opteron Server Processor 
➣2003: AMD Athlon 64 Processor 
➣2004: AMD Dual Core x86 based processor 
➣2004: Intel Pentium Celeron D processor
➣2005: Intel Dual Core Xeon processor 
➣ 2005: AMD Turion 64 Mobile 
➣2005: AMD Athlon 64 x2 (Dual Core) 
➣2006: Intel Core Duo processor 
➣2006: Intel Core Solo ULV processor 
➣2006: Intel Dual Core Itanium 2 processor 
➣2006: Intel Quad-Core Xeon processor 
➣2006: Intel Core 2 Duo processor 
➣2006: Intel Pentiom Core 2 Extreme processor 
➣2006: Intel Pentiom Core Solo processor 
➣2007: Intel Core 2 Quad processor
➣2008: Intel Core2 Extreme 
➣2008: Intel Atom 
➣2009: AMD Quad-Core Opteron processor 
➣2009: AMD Athlon Neo mobile processor 
➣2009: AMD Six-Core Opteron processor 
➣2009: Intel Core i7 
➣2009: Intel Core i5 
➣2009: AMD Phenom II X4 
➣2010: Intel Core i3 
➣2010: AMD Phenom II X6 
➣2010: AMD Opteron 4000 series 
➣2010: AMD Opteron 6000 series (8 core and 12 core processors) 
➣2010: AMD Opteron 6100 series (8 core and 12 core processors) 
➣2011: AMD Fusion series (CPU and GPU on a single die) 
➣2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i3 
➣2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i5 
➣2011: Intel 2nd Generation Core i7 
➣2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i3 
➣2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i5 
➣2012: Intel 3rd Generation Core i7 
➣1972: Intel 8008 processor 

CPU core Components: 

A lot of components go into building a modern computer processor and just what goes in changes with every generation as engineers and scientists find new, more efficient ways to do old tasks.

a) Execution Core(s) 
b) Data Bus 
c) Address Bus 
d) Math Co-processor 
e) Instruction sets / Microcode 
f) Multimedia extensions 
g) Registers 
h) Flags 
i) Pipe-lining 
j) Memory Controller 
k) Cache Memory (L1, L2 and L3) 

 Now we will discuss about the above mentioned core components in details.

a) Execution Core(s)

The central core of the processor is designed for general purpose functions and typically runs faster than the rest of the chip where cache memory or other chip functions are located. A core consists of a series of logic gates producing specific outputs for a given set of inputs.

b) Data Bus

A data bus is a computer subsystem that allows for the transferring of data from one component to another on a motherboard or system board, or between two computers. This can include transferring data to and from the memory, or from the central processing unit (CPU) to other components. Each one is designed to handle so many bits of data at a time. The amount of data a data bus can handle is called bandwidth. A typical data bus is 32-bits wide. This means that up to 32 bits of data can travel through a data bus every second. Newer computers are making data buses that can handle 64-bit and even 96-bit data paths. At the same time they are making data buses to handle more bits, they are also making devices that can handle those higher bit-rates. 

Bus Controllers:

In the early days of the personal computer, manufacturers created motherboards with data buses that were directly connected to the computer's memory and peripherals. These electrical buses were designed to run parallel to each other and had multiple connections. This direct connection was problematic for a number of reasons, but especially because all devices were forced to run at the same speed. To eliminate this problem, developers used a bus controller to separate the CPU and memory from the peripheral devices, allowing CPU speed to be increased without requiring the same increase in peripheral speeds. This system also allowed expansion cards to speak to each other without going through the CPU, leading to quicker data transfer. All devices still must speak to each other at the same speed, however, so low bus speeds may slow an entire computer system. 

Parallel and Serial Data Buses

Modern computers use both parallel and serial data buses. Parallel data buses carry data on many wires simultaneously. Each wire, or path, as they are sometimes called, carries one bit of data. The most common parallel buses found in computers today are the ATA, which stands for Advanced Technology Attachment; the PC card, which stands for personal computer and is used in laptops, and the SCSI, or Small Computer System Interface. A serial data bus has one wire or path, and carries all the bits, one after the other. The most common serial data buses include the USB, also known as the Universal Serial Bus; Fire-wire; Serial ATA; and Serial Attached SCSI. 

Internal and External Data Buses

Nearly every computer contains internal and external data buses. The internal data bus, also known as a local bus, connects all components that are on the motherboard, like the CPU and memory. The external data bus connects all peripheral devices to the motherboard. A variety of different external data buses are available; the appropriate type of data bus depends on the peripheral being attached to the computer. 

c) Address bus:

An address bus is a computer bus architecture used to transfer data between devices that are identified by the hardware address of the physical memory (the physical address), which is stored in the form of binary numbers to enable the data bus to access memory storage.  The address bus is used by the CPU or a direct memory access (DMA) enabled device to locate the physical address to communicate read/write commands. All address buses are read and written by the CPU or DMA in the form of bits. An address bus is part of the system bus architecture, which was developed to decrease costs and enhance modular integration. However, most modern computers use a variety of individual buses for specific tasks. An individual computer contains a system bus, which connects the major components of a computer system and has three main elements, of which the address bus is one, along with the data bus and control bus. An address bus is measured by the amount of memory a system can retrieve. A system with a 32-bit address bus can address 4 gigabytes of memory space. Newer computers using a 64-bit address bus with a supporting operating system can address 16 exhibits of memory locations, which is virtually unlimited. 

d) Math Co-processor

Alternatively referred to as a numeric co-processor or a floating-point co-processor.  
The math co-processor was an optional add-on for the Intel 8086, 80386 and 80486 processors that allowed computers to perform faster mathematical calculations, increasing its overall performance. Today, all computer processors are released with a math co-processor incorporated onto the processor. Below is a listing of earlier computer processors and their co-processors.

Processor

Co-processor
8086
8087
8088
8087
80286
80287
80386SX
80387SX
80386SL
80387SX
80386SLC
80387SX
80486SLC
80387SX
80486SLC2
80387SX
80386DX
80387DX
80486SX
80487SX, DX2/Overdrive
80487SX
Included FPU
80486SX2
DX2/Overdrive

e) Instruction Code / Microcode

The instruction set, also called instruction set architecture (ISA), is part of a computer that pertains to programming, which is basically machine language. The instruction set provides commands to the processor, to tell it what it needs to do. The instruction set consists of addressing modes, instructions, native data types, registers, memory architecture, interrupt, and exception handling, and external I/O. An example of an instruction set is the x86 instruction set, which is common to find on computers today. Different computer processors can use almost the same instruction set while still having very different internal design. Both the Intel Pentium and AMD Athlon processors use nearly the same x86 instruction set. An instruction set can be built into the hardware of the processor, or it can be emulated in software, using an interpreter. The hardware design is more efficient and faster for running programs than the emulated software version. 

Examples of instruction set 
  • ADD - Add two numbers together. 
  • COMPARE - Compare numbers. 
  • IN - Input information from a device, e.g. keyboard. 
  • JUMP - Jump to designated RAM address. 
  • JUMP IF - Conditional statement that jumps to a designated RAM address. 
  • LOAD - Load information from RAM to the CPU. 
  • OUT - Output information to device, e.g. monitor. 
  • STORE - Store information to RAM. 
f) Multimedia Extensions: 

Short for Multimedia extension, MMX is an Intel processor released have been released after the introduction of this technology, as well as the new AMD processors.in 1997 with additional 57 new instructions and enhanced speed capabilities for graphics and multimedia software. MMX is now included in all Intel processors that have been released after the introduction of this technology, as well as the new AMD processors. 

g) Register: 

This is the storage space for instructions and temporary computational data produced by executed instructions. Instructions are written to and read from these registers as well as pointers to locations in memory indicating where the next batch of instructions are located. The size of a register is measured in bits in multiples of 8. The size of the registers determines the size of the instructions that can be processed. 

h) Flags

Flags are located on the chip as are the registers and indicate the current state of various functions and operations. Setting or clearing a flag indicates a state change or signals an event. 

i)Pipe-lining

The pipeline itself comprises a whole task that has been broken out into smaller sub-tasks. The concept actually has its roots in mass production manufacturing plants, such as Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford determined long ago that even though it took several hours to physically build a car, he could actually 
produce a car a minute if he broke out all of the steps required to put a car together into different physical stations on an assembly line. As such, one station was responsible for putting in the engine, another the tires, another the seats, and so on. 

J) Memory Controller

The memory controller is a digital circuit that manages the flow of data going to and from the computer's main memory. A memory controller can be a separate chip or integrated into another chip, such as being placed on the same die or as an integral part of a microprocessor; in the latter case, it is usually called an integrated memory controller (IMC). A memory controller is sometimes also called a memory chip controller (MCC) or a memory controller unit (MCU). 

k) Cache

This is super-fast memory that has been integrated into the processor to increase performance. As of 2003, processors have up to three levels of cache integrated into them. Level 1 is the fastest and closest to the core, level 2 is slightly slower and is farther away, level 3 cache is slower than level 1 and level 2 and is the farthest from the processor core. The cache memory is of a type that is faster than RAM and is placed much closer to the processing core in order to speed up processing by reducing the time required to fetch the next instruction. By placing an amount of super-fast memory optimized for the chip as closely as possible to the core, the system runs faster as it does not have to wait as long while fetching instructions from memory. The cache fetches the instructions in blocks from RAM and passes them to the processor. Both AMD and Intel chips now include predictive pre-fetch processing algorithms designed to predict which blocks of instructions will be used next. 

CPU Measuring Speed: Bits, Cycles and Execution Cores  

CPU Bit Width

The first way of describing a processor is to say how many bits it processes in a single instruction or transports across the processor's internal bus in a single cycle (not exactly correct, but close enough). The number of bits used in the CPU's instructions and registers and how many bits the buses can transfer simultaneously is usually expressed in multiples of 8 bits. It is possible for the registers and the bus to have different sizes. Current chip designs are 64 bit chips (as of 2008). More bits usually means more processing capability and more speed. 

CPU Clock Cycles 

The second way of describing a processor is to say how many cycles per second the chip operates at. This is how many times per second a charge of electricity passes through the chip. The more cycles, the faster the processor. Currently, chips operate in the billions of cycles per second range.  When you're talking about billions of anything in computer terms, you're talking about 'giga' something. When you're talking about how many cycles per second, you’re talking about 'hertz'. Putting the two together, you get gigahertz. More clock cycles usually means more processing capability and more speed. 

The beginning of each cycle is when the clock signal goes from “0” to “1”; we marked this with an arrow. The clock signal is measured in a unit called Hertz (Hz), which is the number of clock cycles per second. A clock of 100 MHz means that in one second there is 100 million clock cycles.

CPU Execution Cores 

The third way of describing a processor is to say how many execution cores are in the chip. The most advanced chips today have eight execution cores. More execution cores means you can get more work done at the same time, but it doesn't necessarily mean a single program will run faster. To put it another way, a processor with one execution core might be able to run your MP3 music, your web browser, a graphics program and that's about where it starts to slow down enough, it's not worth it running more programs. A system with a processor with 8 cores could run all that plus ten more applications without even seeming to slow down (of course, this assumes you have enough RAM to load all of this software at the same time). More execution cores means more processing capability, but not necessarily more speed. The most advanced processors available are 64-bit processors with 8 cores, running as fast as 3-4 gigahertz. Intel has released quad-core 64-bit chips as has AMD. 

Multi-Processor (Multi-CPU) Computers 

Some computers are designed to run more than one processor chip at the same time. Many companies that manufacture servers make models that accept two, four, eight, sixteen even thirty two processors in a single chassis. The biggest supercomputers are running hundreds of thousands of quad-core processors in parallel to do major calculations for such applications as thermonuclear weapons simulations, radioactive decay simulations, weather simulations, high energy physics calculations and more. 

CPU Speed Measurements

The main measurement quoted by manufacturers as a supposed indication of processing speed, is the clock speed of the chip measured in hertz. The theory goes that the higher the number of mega or gigahertz, the faster the processor. However comparing raw speeds is not always a good comparison between chips. Counting how many instructions are processed per second (MIPS, BIPS, TIPS for millions, billions and trillions of instructions per second) is a better measurement. Still others use the number of mathematical calculations per second to rate the speed of a processor. Of course, what measurement is most important and most helpful to you depends on what you use a computer for. If you primarily do intensive math calculations, measuring the number of calculations per second is most important. If you are measuring how fast the computer runs an application, then instructions per second are most important.

Rates & Data Transfer

What characterizes a computer processor is its speed or rate - how fast it can execute instructions. As of now, speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), or billions of cycles a second. Some CPU rates are 2.0 GHz, 2.40 GHz, and 3.20 GHz. These rates and others are obtained by using the motherboard's bus speed. CPUs contain a multiplier that when multiplied by the bus speed, yields the appropriate CPU speed for a given motherboard. For example, if the speed of a motherboard is 800 MHz, and the CPU multiplier is 4, then the processor's speed is 800 x 4 = 3200 MHz or 3.2 GHz. Because the CPU greatly determines the overall performance of a PC, the type of processor and its speed are two of the main factors to look for when deciding to buy a computer. But keep in mind there are other important things, such as the amount of memory.   

32 bit & 64 bit OS:

CPUs are either 32-bit or 64-bit. This means how much data that can be processed in terms of bits. In computers data is composed of 1's and 0's (e.g. 01110010). Each individual 1 or 0 is called a bit. A 32-bit CPU can process a max of 2^32 (2 raised to 32nd power) or about 4.3 billion bits per cycle. A 64-bit processor 2^64 or about 18,400,000,000,000,000,000 of data per cycle. The more data a computer can handle means improved performance.  
The amount of memory supported by a processor is also determined by the number of bits. Using the same math above, a 32-bit processor supports 2^32 or approximately 4 GB of memory. 

Processor Variation:  
In today’s market various types of processor are available. 
  •  Core M 
Introduced in 2014, Core M is a family of power-efficient CPU chips targeted for laptops and tablets. 

  • Dual core
A dual-core processor is a CPU with two processors or "execution cores" in the same integrated circuit. Each processor has its own cache and controller, which enables it to function as efficiently as a single  Processor.  However, because the two processors are linked together, they can perform operations up to twice as fast as a single processor can. The Intel Core Duo, the AMD X2, and the dual-core PowerPC G5 are all examples of CPUs that use dual-core technologies. These CPUs each combine two processor cores on a single silicon chip. This is different than a "dual processor" configuration, in which two physically separate CPUs work together. However, some high-end machines, such as the PowerPC G5 Quad, use two separate dual-core processors together, providing up to four times the performance of a single processor. While a dual-core system has twice the processing power of a single-processor machine, it does not always perform twice as fast. This is because the software running on the machine may not be able to take full advantage or both processors. Some operating systems and programs are optimized for multiprocessing, while others are not. Though programs that have been optimized for multiple processors will run especially fast on dual-core systems, most programs will see at least some benefit from multiple processors as well. 

  • Core2duo
Prior to the Core i series, the 64-bit Core 2 family, introduced in mid-2006, was a major departure from the previous Core Duo chips. Using the Penryn micro-architecture, Core 2 chips became available in single, dual and quad core models. Wide Dynamic Execution executes four instructions in one clock cycle, and compare and branch instructions were combined into one Intelligent Power Capability powers down unused elements on the chip, and Advanced Smart Cache shares the L2 cache among processors, allowing the core that needs more cache memory to have it. Smart Memory Access determines which data in memory can be cached and executes instructions down the pipeline ahead of time. Advanced Digital Media Boost compresses/decompresses 128 bits in one clock cycle instead of two. Let’s have a quick look on differences in between Dual Core & Core2 Duo 


DUAL CORE

CORE 2 DUO
The dual core is the older architecture that sports two cores on one processor, but its older technology puts it in a position of disadvantage.
The core 2 duo two has two cores on the same processor. It is more advanced than the dual core processors.
In case of performance this processor is one of the best Intel processors
This newer processor beats the dual core in all bench-marking tests and therefore in performance-wise.
The Pentium dual core is a processor that produces very little heat.
The core 2 duo takes cool performance one step further producing even lesser heat
Extremely power-efficient processor which has a maximum TDP of an astoundingly low 15 watts.
Power efficient enough, but the 65 watts of maximum TDP.
Acceptable enough clock speeds of about 2.33 GHz for the best ones.
Slams the opposition clocking speeds of 3.33 GHz clock as seen of the higher end ones.
Older model processor, so available pretty cheap nowadays.
Comes at a premium which is nearly double the price of the dual core.
  • Core i3 Series
Processor Number
Cache
Clock Speed
# of cores/# of Threads
Max
TDP/POWER
Memory Types
Intel Core i3-6320 Processor (4M Cache,3.30 GHz)
4 MB
3.3 GHz
2/4
35 W
DDR4-1966/2133, DDR3t-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel Core i3-6300 Processor (4M Cache,3.40 GHz
4 MB
3.9 GHz
2/4
47 W
DDR4-1966/2133, DDR3t-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel Core I3-6300 Processor (4M Caches 3.60 GHz)
4 MB
3.9 GHz
2/4
47 W
DDR4-1966/2133,DDR3t-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel Core I3-6100 Processor (3M Caches 3.70 GHz)
3 MB
3.7 GHz
2/4
47 W
DDR4-1966/2133,DDR3t-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel Core I3-6100T Processor (3M Caches,3.20 GHz)
3 MB
3.2 GHz
2/4
35 W
DDR4-1966/2133,DDR3t-1333/1600 @ 1.35V

Intel's Core i3 processor line has always been a budget option. These processors remain dual-core, unlike the rest of the Core line, which is made up of quad core processors. Intel's Core i3 processors also have many features restricted. The main feature that is kept from the Core i3 processors is Turbo Boost, the dynamic overclocking available on most Intel processors. Finally, Core i3 processors have their integrated graphics processor restricted to a maximum clock speed of 1100 MHz, and all Core i3 processors have the 2000 series IGP, which is restricted to 6 execution cores. This will result in slightly lower IGP performance overall, but the difference is frankly inconsequential in many situations. 
  • Core i5 Series 
Intel used to split the Core i5 processor brand into two different lines, one of which was dual-core and one of which was quad-core. This was, needless to say, a bit confusing for buyers. Thankfully, the behavior has stopped (for now). All Sandy Bridge Core i5 processors are quad-core processors, they all have Turbo Boost, and they all lack Hyper-Threading. Most of the Core i5 processors, besides the K series (explained later) us the same 2000 series IGP with a maximum clock speed of 1100 MHz and six execution cores. In the i3 vs i5 vs i7 battle, the Core i5 processor is now obviously the main-stream option no matter which product you buy. The only substantial difference between the Core i5 options is the clock speed, which ranges from 2.8 GHz to 3.3 GHz. Obviously, the products with a quicker clock speed are more expensive than those that are slower. 

Processor Number
Cache
Clock Speed
# of cores/# of Threads
Max
TDP/POWER
Memory Types
Graphics
Intel Core I5- 6440HQ Processor (6M Cache, up to 3.50 GHz)
6 MB
2.6 GHz
4/4
45 W
DDR4-2133,LPDDR3-1866,DDR3L-1600
Intel HD Graphics 530
Intel Core I5- 6440HQ Processor (6M Cache, up to 3.20 GHz)
6 MB
2.3 GHz
4/4
45 W
DDR4-2133,LPDDR3-1866,DDR3L-1600
Intel HD Graphics 530
Intel Core I5- 6300HQ Processor (3M Cache, up to 3.00 GHz)
3 MB
2.4 GHz
2/4
15 W
DDR4-2133,LPDDR3-1866,DDR3L-1600
Intel HD Graphics 530
Intel Core I5- 6200U Processor (3M Cache, up to 2.80 GHz)
3 MB
2.3 GHz
2/4
15 W
DDR4-2133,LPDDR3-1866,DDR3L-1600
Intel HD Graphics 530

NOTE: As of 2/20/2011, Intel has introduced a dual-core Core i5 called the 2390T. The T appears to be what designates it as a dual-core part. It is the only dual-core Core i5 as of yes, so hopefully Intel has introduced this as some sort of exception, as a return to the confusion of the first-gen Core i5 parts would be disappointing. 
  • Core i7 Series
The Intel Core i7 series has also been cleaned up. In fact, it has perhaps been cleaned up too much, because at the moment Intel is offering only two Sandy Bridge Core i7 processors. These processors are virtually.


Processor Number
Cache
Clock Speed
# of cores/# of Threads
Max
TDP/POWER
Memory Types
Graphics
Intel Core I7- 6700k Processor (8M Cache, up to 4.20 GHz)
8 MB
4 GHz
4/8
91 W
DDR4-1866,2133-DDR3L-,DDR3L-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel HD Graphics 530
Intel Core I7- 6700k Processor (8M Cache, up to 3.60 GHz)
8 MB
2.8 GHz
4/8
35 W
DDR4-1866,2133-DDR3L-,DDR3L-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel HD Graphics 530
Intel Core I7- 6700 Processor (8M Cache, up to 4.00 GHz)
8 MB
3.4 GHz
4/8
65 W
DDR4-1866,2133-DDR3L-,DDR3L-1333/1600 @ 1.35V
Intel HD Graphics 530

Identical to the Core i5. They have a 100 MHz higher base clock speed, which is inconsequential in most situations. The real feature difference is the addition of hyper-threading on the Core i7, which means that the processor will appear as an 8-core processor in Windows. This improves threaded performance and can result in a substantial boost if you're using a program that is able to take advantage of 8 threads. Of course, most programs can't take advantage of 8 threads. Those that can are almost usually meant for enterprise or advanced video editing applications - 3D rendering programs, photo editing programs, and scientific programs are categories of software frequently designed to use 8 threads. The average user is unlikely to see the full benefit of the hyper-threading feature. In the Core i3 vs i5 vs i7 battle, the i7 has limited appeal. The IGP on Core i7 processors can also reach a higher maximum clock speed of 1350 MHz’s As I've said before, however, this difference is largely inconsequential when measuring real-world performance. The Core i3, i5 and i7 are among Intel's fastest processors, but they vary in terms of features, performance and price. Finding the best Intel Core CPU requires that you take a look at all of the options and the different performance and features they offer. Thankfully, comparing Intel Core CPUs is now easier than ever before thanks to a revamp of the processor lineup. 

The K series processor 
Late in the lifespan of Intel A quick look of new generation processors produced the "K" series. 

Technology
Core  i3
Core i5
Core i7
Number of Cores
It is entirely dual core processor
It has the range up to quad core
It has the range up to quad core
Turbo Bust
Core i3 processors don't have Turbo Boost
It has Turbo Boost
It has Turbo Boost
Cache size
Core i3 (Sky lake) chips have 3 or 4 MB
Core i5 have 6mb
Core i7 have 8MB
Hyper-Threading
A Core i3 with Hyper-Threading can process two threads per core
Core i5 range doesn't have Hyper-threading so can also only process four cores
i7 processors do have it, so can process eight threads at once

These processors had unlocked multipliers, making them easier to overclock. Intel has kept this line of products alive with the new Sandy Bridge architecture by introducing a K series Core i5 and i7 processor. As before, these processors have unlocked multipliers. However, they also have a new feature - better integrated graphics processors. This comes in the form of the 3000 series IGP, which has 12 execution cores instead of 6. The maximum clock speed remains limited by the processor brand - the Core i5 K is limited to 1100 MHz, while the Core i7 K can reach 1350 MHz’s The additional execution cores can result in better performance in games, although to honest, the IGP isn't remotely cut out for desktop gaming. 

Sockets and Chip-sets 

The sockets and chip-sets also used to be a stumbling block for those wanting to build a new system with an Intel Core processor. Different processors from the same brand used different sockets. That's no longer the case. All of the new Intel processors use the same LGA 1155 socket and are compatible with the new P67 and H67 chip-sets. This makes choosing compatible hardware relatively painless. Rumor has it that this state of affairs won't last forever, as Intel likely intends on releasing an even quicker Sandy Bridge variant on a new chip-set later this year. For now, however, choosing the right socket and chip-set is a breeze.  

Types 

Processors are designed to fit into a certain type of socket on the motherboard. Every socket has a name, indicating whether it's for an AMD or Intel CPU. Keep in mind that AMD and Intel have different socket designs, so their processors are not interchangeable. But regardless of manufacturer, CPUs usually differ in the number of pins used and are often named accordingly.

Socket Type
Manufacturer
LGA 771 (Socket J)
Intel (Xeon Server)
LGA 775 (Socket T)
Intel
LGA 1156 (Socket H)
Intel
LGA 1166 (Socket B)
Intel
AM2
AMD
AM2+
AMD
AM3
AMD

AM2+ and AM3 mainly differ in terms of the memory each supports. AM2+ supports DDR2 while AM3 supports DDR2 and DDR3, making it backward-compatible with the AM2+ motherboard.  The main difference between CPU sockets is how and where they connect to CPUs. 

There are various types of CPU sockets are available… 
  • PGA Socket  
A pin grid array (PGA) socket is usually a square package made up of a number of holes in an array. The CPU itself has the pins that insert into the socket. The arrangement of pins on the CPU must correspond to the slots on the socket; if not, the CPU will not connect properly to the board. To secure a CPU into a PGA socket, you have to press down until spring contacts lock it -- however, if you do not line up the pins properly, you may bend or damage them.  
  • ZIF Socket 
A zero insertion force (ZIF) socket is an extension of a PGA socket, with pins on the CPU. With a ZIF socket, you don’t have to press down on the CPU to lock it in place. Instead, you simply place the CPU into the socket, then lock it in using a lever or slider on the side of the socket. This results in less risk of you damaging the CPU when you try to insert or remove it from the socket.  
  • LGA Socket  
A land grid array (LGA) socket is essentially the opposite of a PGA socket. Instead of having the pins connected to the CPU, they’re connected to the socket itself while the CPU has slots with connectors. To lock a CPU into an LGA socket, you have to line up the pins and apply a small amount of pressure. LGA sockets are less fragile overall than PGA sockets, and you can also solder down the package using surface mount technology.  

  • BGA Socket 
A ball grid array (BGA) is another variant on the PGA socket but instead of pins, a BGA socket has copper pads which that are soldered to the package. This means that you do not have to worry about damaging any of several hundred pins, especially as pin-chip architecture designs CPUs with pins closer and closer together. This also means there's less distance for data to travel, so there's less of a chance that the signals will distort.  

  • Processor Installation steps: 
Building your own computer can be a fun and challenging do-it-yourself project. Installing a new computer processor on your motherboard is the most delicate and important upgrade installation you can do. The computer processor is the centerpiece of the entire machine. You'll want to be cautious when installing processors in a socket on your motherboard, but it's a quick and simple task. Follow these simple steps to install your own computer processor safely.

1) Free the Socket Retention Bar 

If you're just pulling your motherboard out of the box, it will have a plastic plate across the top of the socket to protect it; you'll need to remove that before proceeding with the rest of these instructions. The metal socket cover is held in place by a retention bar located on one side of the socket. Unhook it, and pull it out. 

2) Open the Socket

Lift the retention bar all the way up, as far as it will go. The socket cover will open automatically once the bar is in its uppermost position.  

3) Insert the Processor

The gold-colored triangle on one corner of the processor corresponds with the triangle on one corner of the socket. (Exactly where the triangle is located depends on the motherboard; it may be either on the socket cover or on the socket itself.) Line up the triangles and you'll know exactly how the processor should go in. Place the processor gently in the socket, with its gold connectors facing down, taking care to minimize contact with the tiny gold pins inside the socket as you do so (it's hard to damage them, but it can be done). 

4) Close the Socket

Once the processor is in place, push the retention bar back down. The notched portion of the socket cover will slide around the round screw near the bottom of the socket. Once the bar is in the down position, hook it back under the side of the socket, thus returning it to its original position. 

5) Install the Cooler

If you're using the stock cooler packaged with a new processor for the first time, it will have thermal compound attached to it. If you're reusing a cooler, you'll need to apply it yourself first—just apply a dollop about the size of a small pea to the center of the CPU. Place the heat sink on top of the processor (the exact orientation doesn't particularly matter, but it helps if the power cable is close to where you'll be plugging it in), then press down on two posts in opposite corners (such as upper-left and lower-right) until you hear them both quietly click. Repeat with the other two posts. To make sure the heat sink is secure, give it a light tug. If it doesn't move at all, you're good to go. 

6) Plug in the Cooler

If the cooler doesn't have power, it won't be able to do its (important) job. So connect the cable to the appropriate pins on the motherboard; in most cases, they will be labeled "CPU FAN" or something similar. Once the processor and heat sink are both installed, and the heat sink has access to power, you're done. 

Processor buying Advice

Intel's Core i5 processor line remains the one to buy. The quad-core i5 processors are extremely quick, and have all of the features that are important, such as Turbo Boost. They're also reasonably priced, however, with the 2.8 GHz variant starting at just under $180 bucks. That's not a bargain, but considering the performance - which is far in excess of Intel's previous Core i5 processors and AMD's quad-core offerings - it's a good value. Still, the i3 processor should be considered if you're not looking for a performance speed-demon. We reached the point at which a basic processor proved capable of offering adequate day-to-day performance years ago. Tasks such as HD video, basic video trans-coding and productivity applications will easily be conquered by the least expensive i3. Finally, we have the i7. In the i3 vs i5 vs i7 battle, the Core i7 is the hardest to recommend. Hyper-threading is great, but only if you use specific applications that can take advantage of 8 threads. If you don't, there isn't much reason to spend the extra dough. If it were my money, I'd buy the Core i5-2500K. This $216 processor is easy to overclock, has a base clock speed of 3.3 GHz, and offers four cores. 

IRQ (Interrupt Requests)

IRQ is the method which devices use to interrupt the CPU and request processing time. There are actually two general ways in which devices can get processing time from the CPU. The first method we will mentioned is called polling. Note that this method is not used any more. Pooling gives each device a certain amount of time to interact with the CPU. Every device gets its chance, whether or not the device actually wants to communicate with the CPU. When the certain amount of time passes, the next device gets a chance to interact with the CPU. So, with polling each device in the system can interact with the CPU for a fixed amount of time, whether or not that device actually needs to communicate with the CPU, and whether or not there is enough time for device to send all messages to the CPU. The second method of implementing communication between the CPU and other devices in the system is called interruption. With this method only the devices which have to interact with the CPU uses the CPUs time. Devices can use as much time as they need. Devices in our computer need to get the CPUs attention when they have work to do. Older systems used the polling method, which was not very efficient way. Modern PCs use the interruption method. Interruption method is implemented by using Interrupt Request Channels (IRQs). IRQs allow a particular device in the system to get the CPUs attention. 

IRQ
USED  FOR
0
System Timer
1
Keyboard
2
Cascade from IRQ9
3
Com 2, Com 4
4
Com 1, Com 3
5
LPT2 ( Often used for Sound Cards)
6
Floppy Disks
7
LPT1
8
Real Time Clock
9
Cascade to IRq2
10
Available (Often used by PCI)
11
Available (Often used by SCSI Adapters)
12
Available (Often used by PS2 mouse)
13
Math co-processor
14
Primary Hard Drive
15
Secondary Hard Drive

The CPU only has one physical interrupt connector, and the CPU typically has to service a lot of devices on the system. All systems today have more than one device. To accommodate multiple devices we actually use additional chip called the Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC). The PIC is placed between the CPU and other devices in the system. The interrupt wire from each device is connected to the PIC chip. That way we have multiple devices which can interrupt the CPU over the PIC chip. 

Default IRQs

Interrupt wire 0 (zero) is always assigned to the system clock (timing pulse). Interrupt 1 is used by the keyboard. Interrupt 2 is unused (it is cascaded to PIC 2). Interrupt 3 is assigned to COM2 and COM4 serial ports, and Interrupt 4 is assigned to COM1 and COM3 serial ports. Interrupt 5 is assigned to the second parallel port, LPT2 (this interrupt is often free so it is used for a sound card). Interrupt 6 is assigned to the floppy disk drive. Interrupt 7 is assigned to LPT1, first parallel port. Interrupt 8 is assigned to the real time clock. Interrupt 9 is often used by USB. Interrupt 10 is available. Interrupt 11 is often used for network cards. Interrupt 12 is often used for mouse. Interrupt 13 is used for math co-processor. Interface 14 is used for primary IDE interface, and interrupt 15 is used for secondary IDE interface. 

On non-plug-and-play systems we have to manually configure each device with its own IRQ. This is usually done via jumpers or a programmable EEPROM on the device. If we configure two different devices with the same IRQ, an IRQ conflict will occur. IRQ conflicts can cause random system lockups. An IRQ for a plug-and-play device is set via the software driver installation program for that device. IRQ sharing is handled automatically by the operating system. For example, a USB controller on a computer generally uses IRQ 9, but we can connect up to 127 USB devices to the single USB controller. Therefore, all devices on that single USB controller will also use IRQ 9. 

IRQ Index:

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