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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM

Operating System

INTRODUCTION TO OPERATING SYSTEM
Computers are pretty much useless without software.  A piece of hardware might just as well be used as a paperweight or doorstop unless you have an easy way to interface with it. Software provides that way. While there are many types of software, or programs, the most important application you’ll ever deal with is the operating system. Operating systems have many different, complex functions, but two of them jump out as being critical: interfacing with the hardware and providing a platform on which other applications can run. Operating system (OS)   provides a consistent environment for other software to execute commands. The OS gives users an interface with the computer so they can send commands (input) and receive feedback or results (output). To do this, the OS must communicate with the computer hardware to perform the following tasks. 

Following are some of important functions of an operating System. 

  • Memory Management 
  • Processor Management 
  • Device Management 
  • File Management 
  • Security 
  • Control over system performance 
  • Job accounting 
  • Error detecting aids 
  • Coordination between other software and users. 

Memory Management

Memory management refers to management of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Main memory is a large array of words or bytes where each word or byte has its own address. Main memory provides a fast storage that can be access directly by the CPU. So for a program to be executed, it must in the main memory. 

Operating System does the following activities for memory management.

Keeps tracks of primary memory i.e. what part of it are in use by whom, what part are not in use. 
In multi-programming, OS decides which process will get memory when and how much. 
Allocates the memory when the process requests it to do so. 
De-allocates the memory when the process no longer needs it or has been terminated. 

Processor Management

In multi-programming environment, OS decides which process gets the processor when and how much time. This function is called process scheduling. Operating System does the following activities for processor management.
Keeps tracks of processor and status of process. Program responsible for this task is known as traffic controller. 
Allocates the processor (CPU) to a process. 
De-allocates processor when processor is no longer required 

Device Management

OS manages device communication via their respective drivers. Operating System does the following activities for device management. 
Keeps tracks of all devices. Program responsible for this task is known as the I/O controller.  
Decides which process gets the device when and for how much time. 
Allocates the device in the efficient way. 
De-allocates devices.

File Management

A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. Operating System does the following activities for file management. 
Keeps track of information, location, uses, status etc. The collective facilities are often known as file system. 
Decides who gets the resources.
Allocates the resources. 
De-allocates the resources. 

 Other Important Activities

Following are some of the important activities that Operating System does. 
Security -- By means of password and similar other techniques, preventing unauthorized access to programs and data. 
Control over system performance -- Recording delays between request for a service and response from the system. 
Job accounting -- Keeping track of time and resources used by various jobs and users. 
Error detecting aids-- Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error detecting aids. 
Coordination between other software and users -- Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
Types of Operating Systems 

Operating systems are there from the very first computer generation. Operating systems keep evolving over the period of time. Following are few of the important types of operating system which are most commonly used.

Batch operating system 

The users of batch operating system do not interact with the computer directly. Each user prepares his job on an off-line device like punch cards and submits it to the computer operator. To speed up processing, jobs with similar needs are batched together and run as a group. Thus, the programmers left their programs with the operator. The operator then sorts programs into batches with similar requirements. 

The problems with Batch Systems are following

Lack of interaction between the user and job. 
CPU is often idle, because the speeds of the mechanical I/O devices are slower than CPU.              
Difficult to provide the desired priority.

 Time-sharing operating systems

Time sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multi-programming. Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing. The main difference between multi-programmed Batch Systems and Time-Sharing Systems is that in case of multi-programmed batch systems, objective is to maximize processor use, whereas in Time-Sharing Systems objective is to minimize response time. Multiple jobs are executed by the CPU by switching between them, but the switches occur so frequently. Thus, the user can receive an immediate response. For example, in a transaction processing, processor execute each user program in a short burst or quantum of computation. That is if n users are present, each user can get time quantum. When the user submits the command, the response time is in few seconds at most. Operating system uses CPU scheduling and multi-programming to provide each user with a small portion of a time. Computer systems that were designed primarily as batch systems have been modified to time-sharing systems. 

Advantages of Time-sharing operating systems are following

Provide advantage of quick response.  
Avoids duplication of software.  
Reduces CPU idle time. 

Disadvantages of Time-sharing operating systems are following

Problem of reliability.  
Question of security and integrity of user programs and data.  
Problem of data communication.  

Distributed operating System

Distributed systems use multiple central processors to serve multiple real time application and multiple users. Data processing jobs are distributed among the processors accordingly to which one can perform each job most efficiently. 

The processors communicate with one another through various communication lines (such as high-speed buses or telephone lines). These are referred as loosely coupled systems or distributed systems. Processors in a distributed system may vary in size and function. These processors are referred as sites, nodes, and computers and so on. 

The advantages of distributed systems are following

With resource sharing facility user at one site may be able to use the resources available at another. 
  Speedup the exchange of data with one another via electronic mail.  
If one site fails in a distributed system, the remaining sites can potentially continue operating.   Better service to the customers.  
Reduction of the load on the host computer.  
Reduction of delays in data processing. 

Kernel

A kernel is a central component of an operating system. It acts as an interface between the user applications and the hardware. The sole aim of the kernel is to manage the communication between the software (user level applications) and the hardware (CPU, disk memory etc.).  

The main tasks of the kernel are
➣ Process management 
➣ Device management 
➣ Memory management 
➣ Interrupt handling 
➣ I/O communication 
➣ File system. 

Network operating System

Network Operating System runs on a server and provides server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks. Examples of network operating systems are Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, UNIX, Linux, Mac OS X, Nov-ell Net-Ware, and BSD. 


The advantages of network operating systems are following

Centralized servers are highly stable.  
Security is server managed.  
Upgrades to new technologies and hardware can be easily integrated into the system.  
Remote access to servers is possible from different locations and types of systems.  

The disadvantages of network operating systems are following

High cost of buying and running a server.  
Dependency on a central location for most operations.  
Regular maintenance and updates are required. 

Real Time operating System

Real time system is defining as a data processing system in which the time interval required to process and respond to inputs is so small that it controls the environment. Real time processing is always on line whereas on line system need not be real time. The time taken by the system to respond to an input and display of required updated information is termed as response time. So in this method response time is very less as compared to the online processing. 

Real-time systems are used when there are rigid time requirements on the operation of a processor or the flow of data and real-time systems can be used as a control device in a dedicated application. Real-time operating system has well-defined, fixed time constraints otherwise system will fail. For example Scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, weapon systems, robots, and home-appliance controllers, Air traffic control system etc. 

There are two types of real-time operating systems. Hard real system & soft real system. Let’s have a short look on this.

➽ Hard real-time systems Hard real-time systems guarantee that critical tasks complete on time. In hard real-time systems secondary storage is limited or missing with data stored in ROM. In these systems virtual memory is almost never found.
  
➽ Soft real-time systems Soft real time systems are less restrictive. Critical real-time task gets priority over other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. Soft real-time systems have limited utility than hard real-time systems. For example, Multimedia, virtual reality, Advanced Scientific Projects like undersea exploration and planetary rovers etc. 

Operating System Services

Program execution

Operating system handles many kinds of activities from user programs to system programs like printer spooler, name servers, file server etc. Each of these activities is encapsulated as a process. A process includes the complete execution context (code to execute, data to manipulate, registers, OS resources in use). Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to program management. 


Loads a program into memory.  
Executes the program.  
Handles program's execution.  
Provides a mechanism for process synchronization.  
Provides a mechanism for process communication.  
Provides a mechanism for deadlock handling.

I/O Operation

I/O subsystem comprised of I/O devices and their corresponding driver software. Drivers hides the peculiarities of specific hardware devices from the user as the device driver knows the peculiarities of the specific device. Operating System manages the communication between user and device drivers. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to I/O Operation. 
I/O operation means read or write operation with any file or any specific I/O device.  
Program may require any I/O device while running.  
Operating system provides the access to the required I/O device when required.

File system manipulation

A file represents a collection of related information. Computer can store files on the disk (secondary storage), for long term storage purpose. Few examples of storage media are magnetic tape, magnetic disk and optical disk drives like CD, DVD. Each of these media has its own properties like speed, capacity, and data transfer rate and data access methods. A file system is normally organized into directories for easy navigation and usage. These directories may contain files and other directions. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to file management. 

  • Program needs to read a file or write a file.  
  • The operating system gives the permission to the program for operation on file.  
  • Permission varies from read-only, read-write, denied and so on.  
  • Operating System provides an interface to the user to create/delete files.  
  • Operating System provides an interface to the user to create/delete directories.  
  • Operating System provides an interface to create the backup of file system.  

Communication

In case of distributed systems which are a collection of processors that do not share memory, peripheral devices, or a clock, operating system manages communications between processes. Multiple processes with one another through communication lines in the network. 

OS handles routing and connection strategies, and the problems of contention and security. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to communication. 

Two processes often require data to be transferred between them.  
The both processes can be on the one computer or on different computer but are connected through computer network.  
Communication may be implemented by two methods either by Shared Memory or by Message Passing.  

Error handling

Error can occur anytime and anywhere. Error may occur in CPU, in I/O devices or in the memory hardware. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to error handling. 

OS constantly remains aware of possible errors.  
OS takes the appropriate action to ensure correct and consistent computing.  

Resource Management

In case of multi-user or multi-tasking environment, resources such as main memory, CPU cycles and files storage are to be allocated to each user or job. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to resource management.
OS manages all kind of resources using schedulers. 
CPU scheduling algorithms are used for better utilization of CPU. 

Protection

Considering computer systems having multiple users the concurrent execution of multiple processes, then the various processes must be protected from each another's activities. Protection refers to mechanism or a way to control the access of programs, processes, or users to the resources defined by computer systems. Following are the major activities of an operating system with respect to protection. 

OS ensures that all access to system resources is controlled. 
OS ensures that external I/O devices are protected from invalid access attempts.  
OS provides authentication feature for each user by means of a password.  

Operating System Properties
Batch processing

Batch processing is a technique in which Operating System collects one programs and data together in a batch before processing starts. Operating system does the following activities related to batch processing. 

OS defines a job which has predefined sequence of commands, programs and data as a single unit.  
OS keeps a number a jobs in memory and executes them without any manual information.
Jobs are processed in the order of submission i.e. first come first served fashion.  
When job completes its execution, its memory is released and the output for the job gets copied into an output spool for later printing or processing. 

Advantages

Batch processing takes much of the work of the operator to the computer.  
Increased performance as a new job gets started as soon as the previous job finished without any manual intervention.  

Disadvantages

Difficult to debug program.  
A job could enter an infinite loop. 
Due to lack of protection scheme, one batch job can affect pending jobs. 

Multitasking

Multitasking refers to term where multiple jobs are executed by the CPU simultaneously by switching between them. Switches occur so frequently that the users may interact with each program while it is running. Operating system does the following activities related to multitasking. 

 The user gives instructions to the operating system or to a program directly, and receives an immediate response.  
 Operating System handles multitasking in the way that it can handle multiple operations / executes multiple programs at a time.  
 Multitasking Operating Systems are also known as Time-sharing systems.  
 These Operating Systems were developed to provide interactive use of a computer system at a reasonable cost.  
 A time-shared operating system uses concept of CPU scheduling and multi-programming to provide each user with a small portion of a time-shared CPU.  
 Each user has at least one separate program in memory.  
A program that is loaded into memory and is executing is commonly referred to as a process.  When a process executes, it typically executes for only a very short time before it either finishes or needs to perform I/O.  
➣ Since interactive I/O typically runs at people speeds, it may take a long time to complete. During this time a CPU can be utilized by another process. 
 Operating system allows the users to share the computer simultaneously. Since each action or command in a time-shared system tends to be short, only a little CPU time is needed for each user.
As the system switches CPU rapidly from one user/program to the next, each user is given the impression that he/she has his/her own CPU, whereas actually one CPU is being shared among many users. 

Multi-programming

When two or more programs are residing in memory at the same time, then sharing the processor is referred to the multi-programming. Multi-programming assumes a single shared processor. Multi-programming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one to execute. 


Operating system does the following activities related to multi-programming. 

The operating system keeps several jobs in memory at a time. 
This set of jobs is a subset of the jobs kept in the job pool. 
The operating system picks and begins to execute one of the job in the memory.  
Multi-programming operating system monitors the state of all active programs and system resources using memory management programs to ensures that the CPU is never idle unless there are no jobs 

Advantages

High and efficient CPU utilization. 
User feels that many programs are allotted CPU almost simultaneously.  

Disadvantages 

CPU scheduling is required.  

Interactivity


Interactivity refers that a User is capable to interact with computer system. Operating system does the following activities related to interactivity. 


➣ OS provides user an interface to interact with system.  
 OS managers input devices to take inputs from the user. For example, keyboard.  
 OS manages output devices to show outputs to the user. For example, Monitor.  
 OS Response time needs to be short since the user submits and waits for the result.  

Real Time System

Real time systems represents are usually dedicated embedded systems. Operating system does the following activities related to real time system activity. 

In such systems, Operating Systems typically read from and react to sensor data
The Operating system must guarantee response to events within fixed periods of time to ensure correct performance. 

Distributed

Distributed environment refers to multiple independent CPUs or processors in a computer system. Operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment. 

OS Distributes computation logic's among several physical processors.  
The processors do not share memory or a clock.  
Instead, each processor has its own local memory.  
OS manages the communications between the processors. They communicate with each other through various communication lines.  

Spooling

Spooling is an acronym for simultaneous peripheral operations on line. Spooling refers to putting data of various I/O jobs in a buffer. This buffer is a special area in memory or hard disk which is accessible to I/O devices. Operating system does the following activities related to distributed environment. 

➣ OS handles I/O device data spooling as devices have different data access rates.  
➣ OS maintains the spooling buffer which provides a waiting station where data can rest while the slower device catches up.

OS maintains parallel computation because of spooling process as a computer can perform I/O in parallel fashion. It becomes possible to have the computer read data from a tape, write data to disk and to write out to a tape printer while it is doing its computing task. 

Interface wise Operating system


CUI and GUI are acronyms that stand for different kinds of user interface systems. These are terms used in reference to computers. CUI stands for Character User Interface while GUI refers to Graphical User Interface. Though both are interfaces and serve the purpose of running the programs, they differ in their features and the control they provide to the user. Here is a brief explanation of the two types of user interface for the help of those who do not know about them. 


CUI (Character User interface)

CUI means you have to take help of a keyboard to type commands to interact with the computer. You can only type text to give commands to the computer as in MS DOS or command prompt. There are no images or graphics on the screen and it is a primitive type of interface. In the beginning, computers had to be operated through this interface and users who have seen it say that they had to contend with a black screen with white text only.  

In those days, there was no need of a mouse as CUI did not support the use of pointer devices. CUI’s have gradually become outdated with the more advanced GUI taking their place. However, even the most modern computers have a modified version of CUI called CLI (Command Line Interface). 

GUI (Graphical user interface)

GUI is what most modern computers make use of. This is an interface that makes use of graphics, images and other visual clues such as icons. This interface made it possible for a mouse to be used with a computer and interaction really became very easy as the user could interact with just a click of the mouse rather than having to type every time to give commands to the computer.


 Difference between CUI and GUI


• CUI and GUI are user interface used in connection with computers 

• CUI is the precursor of GUI and stands for character user interface where user has to type on keyboard to proceed. On the other hand GUI stands for Graphical User Interface which makes it possible to use a mouse instead of keyboard 
• GUI is much easier to navigate than CUI
• There is only text in case of CUI whereas there are graphics and other visual clues in case of GUI 
• Most modern computers use GUI and not CUI 
• DOS is an example of CUI whereas Windows is an example of GUI. 

Types of Operating System

In according to user point of view the operating system can classified into following category.


Single User

This type of operating system only has to deal with one person at a time, running one user application at a time. An example of this kind of operating system would be found on a mobile phone. There can only be one user using the mobile and that person is only using one of its applications at a time.  

Multi User

A multi-user operating system is a computer operating system (OS) that allows multiple users on different computers or terminals to access a single system with one OS on it. These programs are often quite complicated and must be able to properly manage the necessary tasks required by the different users connected to it. 

User specific Operating system


There are Many Operating Systems those have be Developed for Performing the Operations those are requested by the user. There are Many Operating Systems which have the Capability to Perform the Requests those are received from the System. The Operating system can perform a Single Operation and also Multiple Operations at a Time. So there are many types of Operating systems those are organized by using their Working Techniques. 


Server Operating System (SOS)



A server operating system (OS) is a type of operating system that is designed to be installed and used on a server computer. It is an advanced version of an operating system, having features and capabilities required within a client-server architecture or similar enterprise computing environment. 


Server Operating System (Server OS)
  • Some common examples of server Operating Systems include:  Red Hat Enterprise Linux 
  • Windows Server 2003,2008,2012 
  • Mac OS X Server Some of the key features of a server operating system include: 
  • Ability to access the server both in GUI and command-level interface 
  • Execute all or most processes from OS commands 
  • Advanced-level hardware, software and network configuration services 
  • Install/deploy business applications and/or web applications 
  • Provides central interface to manage users, implement security and other administrative processes 
  • Manages and monitors client computers and/or operating systems. 
Network Operating System (NOS)

A network operating system is an operating system designed for the sole purpose of supporting workstations, database sharing, and application sharing and file and printer access sharing among multiple computers in a network. Certain standalone operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows NT and Digital’s OpenVMS, come with multipurpose capabilities and can also act as network operating systems. Some of the most well-known network operating systems include Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Microsoft Windows Server 2008, Linux and Mac OS X. 

The salient features of network operating systems are
  • Basic operating system features support like protocol support, processor support, hardware detection and multiprocessing support for applications 
  • Security features like authentication, restrictions, authorizations and access control 
  • Features for file, Web service, printing and replication 
  • Directory and name services management 
  • User management features along with provisions for remote access and system management  Internet-working features like routing and WAN ports 
  • Clustering capabilities 
Common task associated with network operating system include
  • User administration 
  • System maintenance activities like backup 
  • Tasks associated with file management 
  • Security monitoring on all resources in the network 
  • Setting priority to print jobs in the network 
   Difference between Server & Network Operating System 
Server OS
Network OS
1) unlimited user connections
2) use of large amounts of memory
3) can act as web server, database server, email server and other server-like roles
4) optimized for network, instead of local application execution
5) extended management
6) extended fault tolerance to avoid down times
7) can hold a domain
8) expensive
1) Deal with users logging on.
2) Maintain the network connection to the server(s)
3) Expand the file system to view folders on other computers 
4) Provide security to separate user accounts from each other
5) can work on a domain as a member (professional edition only - home edition cannot join a domain)
6) Rich connectivity support (LAN, wireless, Bluetooth, etc.)
7) cheaper than the server version

Introduction to windows 7 & its features 

Windows 7 is an operating system that Microsoft has produced for use on personal computers. It is the follow-up to the Windows Vista Operating System, which was released in 2006. An operating system allows your computer to manage software and perform essential tasks. It is also a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows you to visually interact with your computer’s functions in a logical, fun, and easy way. 

Windows 7 features

Most PCs run on an operating system called Windows. These particular tutorial deals with the Windows 7 professional version of the Windows operating system. The operating system is what allows you as the user to access the information in the computer. To understand how to use a computer, it is important to know several features of the Windows 7 operating system. 

  •  Desktop the desktop is the area you see when the computer is not running applications. It consists of the icons on top of it, as well as the Start button and other features. The desktop can be used to temporarily store information or to move around documents and windows.  
  • Icon Icons are little pictures that represent different programs or saved items. Double-clicking on the icon accesses the information icons represent.  
  • Window each application opened will appear in its own window, or its own little section of the screen. Windows can be moved and resized so that you can operate many different applications at the same time. To learn how to manipulate windows, refer to the Manipulating Windows portion of Level.  
  • Dialogue Box When you ask the computer to do certain commands, such as to save your work, the computer will need more information from you, and this will appear in a dialogue box. These boxes contain options and commands for the computer to execute.  
  • Start Menu In the lower left-hand corner of the Windows screen is the Start button. When you click on the button a menu will appear, which we will call the Start menu. This menu gives you access to all the different parts and functions of the computer.
  • Task Bar At the very bottom of the screen is a horizontal bar called the task bar . This bar contains (from left to right) the Start button, shortcuts to various programs, minimized programs, and another section of shortcuts that includes sound volume, printers and the time. 
  • Tab Menu Tab menus, which are often present in dialogue boxes, are menus that represent many different “pages” of information. To access each “page,” click on the tab at the top of the dialogue box. 
Once you understand what all of the different parts of the computer do, you can begin to use it. 
  • Start Up First of all, you will need to turn the computer on. Do this by pushing the power button on the front of the computer unit. The computer takes a few minutes to start up, so be patient. 
  • Shut Down To shut down, click with your mouse on the button in the lower left-hand corner of the screen labeled Start. On the menu that pops up, you have multiple options for exiting your windows computer. Options are Shut Down, Switch User, Log Off, Lock, Restart, Sleep and Hibernate.  Choose the Shutdown button in the lower right hand corner to turn the computer off.  To switch to another user, press the arrow next to the Shutdown button and click Switch user.  To Log off of the computer, click the arrow next to the Shutdown button and click Log Off.  If you would rather just lock the computer, blocking anyone else from using the computer without your password, choose Lock. 
  • Stand By When a computer is left alone for a while, it goes into “sleep” or “stand by” mode to save energy. In standby mode, the computer slows down its inner processes because they are not being used. The computer also blacks out the monitor. If you wish to use a computer and the monitor is dark, check to see if it is in standby before you try to start it up. Usually, the computer has a green light on or near the power button that signifies that it is on, but in standby mode. To “wake it up,” move the mouse or hit a key on the keyboard. In about 8-10 seconds the computer will wake up and be fully functional. If you do not realize that the computer is in stand by and you try to turn it on with the power button, the computer will wake up and a dialogue box will appear, but it will not damage the computer.

Installation Steps of Windows 7 operating System


 A clean install of Windows 7 requires you to boot the computer from the Windows 7 DVD. 
          
Requirements for installing Windows 7 

1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster 32-bit (x86) or 64-bit (x64) processor. 
1 gigabyte (GB) RAM (32-bit) or 2 GB RAM (64-bit) 
16 GB available hard disk space (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) 
Direct X 9 graphics device with WDDM 1.0 or higher driver.  
Installation Steps 

Step 1

Enter your computer's BIOS. Turn off the computer that you want to install Windows on then turn it back on. When the BIOS screen appears or you are prompted to do so, press Del, Esc, F2, F10, or F9 (depending on your computer’s motherboard) to enter the system BIOS. The key to enter the BIOS is usually shown on the screen.  

Step 2


Find your BIOS's boot options menu. The boot options menu of your BIOS may vary in location or name from the illustration, but you may eventually find it if you search around. If you can't find the boot options menu, search the name of your BIOS (most likely located in the BIOS menu) online for help. 

Step 3 

Select the CD-ROM drive as the first boot device of your computer. Although this method may vary among computers, the boot options menu is typically a menu of movable device names where you should set your CD-ROM drive as the first boot device. It can also be a list of devices that you can set the order of their boot on.  

Step 4

Save the changes of the settings. Press the button indicated on the screen or select the save option from the BIOS menu to save your configuration. 

Step 5

Shut off your computer. Either turn off the computer by choosing the shut-down option in your current operating system, or hold the power button until the computer powers off. 

Step 6


Start your computer from the disc. After you have placed the disc into the disc drive, start your computer. When the computer starts, press a key if you are asked if you would like to boot from the disc by pressing any key. After you choose to start from the disc, Windows Setup will begin loading. If you are not asked to boot from the disc, you may have done something wrong. Retry the previous steps to solve the problem. So be careful while doing the above steps. 

Step 7

Choose your Windows Setup options. Once Windows Setup loads, you'll be presented with a window. Select your preferred language, keyboard type, and time/currency format, then click next. 

Step 8

Click the Install Now button. 

Step 9


Accept the License Terms. Read over the Microsoft Software License Terms, check I accept the license terms, and click next. 

Step 10


Select the Custom installation. 

Step 11

Decide on which hard drive and partition you want to install Windows on.

A hard drive is a physical part of your computer that stores data, and partitions "divide" hard drives into separate parts. 

If the hard drive has data on it, delete the data off of it, or format it. 
  • Select the hard drive from the list of hard drives. 
  • Click Drive options (advanced). 
  • Click Format from Drive options. 
If your computer doesn't have any partitions yet, create one to install Windows on it.  
  • Select the hard drive from the list of hard drives. 
  • Click Drive options (advanced). 
  • Select New from Drive options. 
  • Select the size, and click OK. 
Step 12

Install Windows on your preferred hard drive and partition.

Once you've decided on where to install Windows, select it and click next. Windows will begin installing. 

Step 13

Choose your Windows Update settings. 
  • Use recommended settings automatically sets update and security settings recommended by Microsoft.  
  • Install important updates only configures your computer only to install necessary updates.  
  • Ask me later disables your security until you have made a decision. 
Step 14
   
Set your time and time zone. 
  • Use specific time Zone according to your current place. 
Step 15

Set your network type. 
  • If the computer is connected to your own personal network, choose Home network. 
  • If you are connected to the network at your workplace, choose Work network. 
  • If you're connected to a public network from places such as restaurants and shops, choose Public network. 
Step 16

Once all done then a fresh you will get fresh window 7 screen in your desktop, laptop etc. 

Step 17

After the whole process you can customize your desktop. Like Applying screen saver, changing wallpaper, you can also use various gadgets. 

Introduction to windows 8 

Windows 8 is Microsoft's latest operating system which is completely redesigned. It moves away from the traditional interface to a completely new interface known as Metro User Interface. The familiar start menu is now gone. Icons and windows are replaced with live tiles and magazine styled interface. 

There have been many different versions of Windows over the years, including Windows 7 (released in 2009), Windows Vista (2006), and Windows XP (2001). While previous versions of Windows mainly ran on desktop and laptop computers, Windows 8 is also designed to run on tablets. Because of this, the interface has been simplified so it will work with touchscreens. 

Windows 8 features
  • Interactive tiles
The Metro start screen may not be everyone’s cup of tea, but it does have undeniable benefits, chief of which is the interactive tiles. The interactive tile for the Mail application provides snippets from unread messages in your inbox, the Music tile shows which track is currently playing, and the Calendar app displays forthcoming appointments in your diary. It’s great for getting an overview of what’s going on when you fire up your PC or tablet first thing in the morning.

  • Task Manager   Nobody really wants to spend any time in Task Manager, but should you be forced to manually terminate a program or a task, the new-look utility makes it much easier to find the guilty, resource-hogging culprits. Entries in the Task Manager are now heat-mapped, so it’s simple to see at a glance which application is chomping through CPU cycles or memory. There’s also a column of attractive new graphs under the Performance tab, allowing you to see at a glance if the CPU, memory or network connection (either Ethernet or Wi-Fi) is taking an unexpected hit. 
  • Metro Start Screen  Our first impression is that the new operating system has caused some concern among hard core PC users because of the missing Start menu button.  It has been replaced with a new Metro style Start screen. 
  • Logon Accounts  There are now two types of Login accounts used in Windows 8 - Local User account and Microsoft Login Account.  The local user account is a typical account that you use to logon to previous versions of Windows Computer.  Your assigned user name and password when you setup your computer.  The Microsoft login account is based upon an email user name and password, and it will automatically connect to the Internet or “Cloud” during the logon process. 
  • Search for Apps and Files To open Search pane, press the Windows key and the letter S. To be more specific with your search, choose the drop-down options (above the search box) and select from: Everywhere, Settings, Files, Web images, Web videos.  
Press the Windows key and the letter F to open a search box to specifically search for files. 
Press the Windows key and the letter W to open a search box to specifically search for settings and items in the control panel. 
  • The Desktop- The Windows 8 Desktop looks like the desktop in previous version of Windows.  It contains icons such as the recycle bin and the task-bar located at the bottom of the desktop Use Alt + Tab to move between the desktop and all the open applications.  Hold down the Alt key then press Tab several times to toggle through the open applications. Task-bar and Jump lists- The task-bar allow you to start apps and switch among them.  You can pin your favorite apps to the task-bar for an easy, one-click access.  To pin an application to the task-bar, search for the application, then right click the application and select Pin this program to task-bar. After you pin an app to the task-bar, you can display a list of recently opened files.  This list is called a Jump list.  Right-click the application icon to show the Jump List. To pin favorite files to the top of the list for easy access, click the pin icon next to the file name. 
  • Sync Your Settings- File synchronization is not new by the Sync Your Settings option, however in Windows 8 it is redesigned, with many additional options and easier to use.  Look at the screen capture below to see the Sync Your Settings in Windows 8, with the list of optional settings that can be synchronized between all your Windows 8 devices, such as other Windows 8 PCs, laptops, tablets and smart phone. This is really a nice feature for people who own or use more than one device for example a desktop, a laptop and a Windows tablet or phone.  Sync is also referred to as Active Sync and Exchange Active Sync.  The technology is also available in other operating systems such as Apple and Android products. 
  • Note:  You will not be able to Sync your settings if you logon using only your local user account, you must have a Microsoft account. 
  • Windows 8 Help  To learn more about the basics of Windows 8 all you need to do is from the Start screen, press F1 on the keyboard to display Windows 8 Help. The three main selections are Get Started, Internet & Networking, and Security, Privacy, & Accounts.  Get Started will provide you basic information about such topics as how to use a touch screen with Windows 8, what’s new with the keyboard and mouse, Installing a program, Add view and manage your device and printers, and common sound problems.  This is a great place as it says to get started learning the basics of Windows 8 interface.
  • Windows Store The Windows Store, while sparsely populated for the Consumer Preview, shows tremendous promise. Microsoft has borrowed the best features from other app stores and added a couple of unique features of its own. 
  • Built-in antivirus Microsoft seems reluctant to shout about it – perhaps through fear of attracting unwanted anti-trust attention, but Windows 8 is the first version of Windows to include built-in antivirus protection. And not before time. Microsoft Security Essentials (MSE), the optional free antivirus package for older versions of Windows, now appears under the Windows Defender umbrella in the Windows 8 Consumer Preview. As with the Windows 7 version of MSE, its light on features, but as an unobtrusive minder to keep an eye out for anything untoward, it should suffice. Microsoft is also vetting Metro Style apps before they appear in the Store, adding another layer of protection. 
  • Picture passwords  Tapping in passwords on a tablet, even using Microsoft’s excellent soft keyboard, is hardly ideal. Picture passwords are an inventive alternative. Select a photo from your library, make three gestures with your finger on the chosen photo tapping each of your children in alphabetical order, for example, or swiping across three letters in a picture of fridge magnets and that becomes your Windows login. Picture passwords can be used with both touchscreens and mouse controls. Should you forget your Picture password, you can switch back to the more conventional methods of logging in with your Windows Live ID or with a simple text password. 
Requirements for installing Windows 8

1. Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster. 
2. RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit) 
3. Hard disk space: 16 GB (32-bit) or 20 GB (64-bit) 
4. Graphics card: Microsoft Direct X 9 graphics device with WDDM driver. 

Getting started with Windows 

Windows 8 can be confusing at first, since the interface has changed so much. You'll need to know how to navigate the Start screen, as well as the Desktop. Although the Desktop looks very similar to previous versions of Windows, it has one major change: The Start menu has been removed. 

How is Windows 8 different from earlier versions?

There are many new features and changes in Windows 8, both small and large. These changes include a redesigned interface, online features, and improved security.
➣ Interface changes The first thing you'll notice about Windows 8 is that it looks totally different from previous versions of Windows. The all-new interface includes features like the Start screen, live tiles, and hot corners. 
 Start screen The main screen you'll use is called the Start screen, and it displays all of your apps as tiles. You can personalize your Start screen by changing the color scheme, choosing a background image, and rearranging your tiles. 
➣ Live tiles Some apps use live tiles, which let you see information without even clicking on the app. For example, the Weather app displays the current weather on its tile, and you can click on it to see more details. 
➣ Hot corners You'll navigate through Windows 8 by using hot corners. To use a hot corner, just hover the mouse in the corner of the screen, and it will open a toolbar or tile that you can click. For example, to switch to another open app, you can hover the mouse in the top-left corner and then click. If you're using a tablet, you'll swipe from the left or right instead of using hot corners. 
 Charms bar Many of your computer's settings are now found in a toolbar called the Charms bar. You can access it by hovering in the top-right or bottom-right corner of the screen. If you're using a tablet, you can swipe from the right to open the Charms bar. 

Online features in Windows 8

Many people are starting to save their files and other information online (also known as the cloud). One way to do this is with Microsoft's One-drive service (previously call Sky Drive). Windows 8 is designed to connect seamlessly to One-drive, as well as to other online services like Facebook and Twitter. Sign in with Microsoft account: Instead of creating an account on your computer, you can sign in with your free Microsoft account. This will bring all of your One-drive files, contacts, and more into your Start screen. You can even sign in to a different computer that has Windows 8, and all of your important files will be there. 

Other Windows 8 features

Simplified Desktop for increased speed Microsoft hasn't removed the Desktop, and you can still use it to manage your files or open many of your existing programs. However, it has removed some of the transparency effects that often caused Windows 7 and Vista to run slowly. The new Desktop should run more smoothly on most computers.
Start menu has been replaced The Start menu was an important feature in earlier versions of Windows, but it has been replaced with the Start screen. You'll use the Start screen to open programs or search your computer. Some people may find it disorienting to use Windows without the Start menu.
Improved security Windows 8 has a built-in antivirus program called Windows Defender, which can also protect you from other types of malware such as spyware. The built-in Windows Store also helps to keep you and your computer safe by showing you what information each app will have access to. For example, some apps have access to your location, so if you're uncomfortable sharing your location you can decide not to download those apps. 

Installation Steps of Windows 8 operating System

 A clean install of Windows 8 requires you to boot the computer from the Windows 8 DVD. This step-by-step guide demonstrates how to install Microsoft Windows 8 Professional. You can follow this guide if you have Windows 8 basic edition or any other version of windows 8 as the steps are very similar.                       

The best way to install Windows 8 is to do a clean install. Before you start the installation process, check Windows 8 System Requirements to ensure that your hardware is supported by Windows 8. If you don't have Windows 8 drivers for all your hardware, it is a good idea to download all the drivers from the hardware manufacturers web site and save all the necessary drivers on a CD/DVD or a USB drive before you start the installation. 

Windows 8 Professional DVD is boo-table. In order to boot from the DVD, you need to set the boot sequence. Look for the boot sequence under your BIOS setup and make sure that the first boot device is set to CDROM/DVD-ROM. 

Step 1 

Place Windows 8 DVD in your DVD-ROM drive and start your PC. Windows 8 will start to boot up and you will get the following screen with a rotating progress bar. 

Step 2 

The next screen allows you to setup your language, time and currency format, keyboard or input method. Choose your required settings and click next to continue.

Step 3 


The next screen allows you to install or repair Windows 8. Since we are doing a clean install we will click on "install now". 

Step 4 

 The setup process starts as shown. 

Step 5 

At this stage you need to type your product key that came with your copy of Windows 8. Click next once you have entered the product key correctly. 

Step 6 

Read the license terms and tick I accept license terms. Then click next to continue.

 Step 7 


Choose the type of installation you want. Since you are doing a clean install you need to click on custom. 

Step 8 

Choose where you would like to install Windows 8. If you have one hard drive you will get an option similar to the image below. You can click next to continue then go to step 12. 
If you have more than one drive or partition, then you need to select the appropriate drive and click next. At this stage you can go to step 12. 
If you want to partition a large drive, then do not click next. Go to step 9. 

Step 9 

If you want to partition an existing drive then click new. Choose the size of the partition and click apply. 

Step 10 

Click OK to create the partition. Windows will create additional system partition which you don't have to worry about. 

Step 11 

You will notice that you have 3 partitions. Partition 1 is system reserved. Leave this partition alone. Partition 2 is 30GB primary partition that was created in the last step. The third partition is unallocated which means it is not being used. You can however format it and use it as a second storage drive. This can be done after windows installation is finished so I will leave it for now. 

Choose partition 2 (Primary Partition). This is where I will install Windows 8. Click next to continue. 


Step 12 

At this stage Windows starts to copy files to your hard drive and begins the installation. This process might take a few minutes depending on your computer specification. Now is a good time to grab yourself a coffee. 

Step 13 

When all the necessary files are copied Windows 8 will automatically restart as shown. 

Step 14 

You will go through various progress bar and information messages as shown on the following images. Windows might restart automatically second time. 

Step 15


You are now presented with "Let's go through a few basics" screen. It will automatically select personalize option. 

Step 16 

 Choose your PC name and personalize the color. 

Step 17 

Here you can choose express settings or choose customize. I will choose customize to make further customization. 

Step 18 

Choose Yes, turn on sharing and connect to devices. 

Step 19 


Help protect and update your PC. Choose your preferred option and click next. 

Step 20 

Send Microsoft info to help make Windows and apps better. Choose your preferred options or leave the default settings. Click next to continue. 

Step 21 

Check online for solutions to problem. Choose your preferred options or leave the default settings. Click next to continue. 

Step 22 

Sign in to your PC. Here you can login to your PC using a Microsoft email account such as your Hotmail account. 
If you do not have a Microsoft account, you can create one by clicking Sign up for a new email address. Go to Step 23. 
If you don't want to create an email account and prefer to create a local user name, click Sign in without a Microsoft account. Go to step 24.

Step 23 


Sign up for a new email address. If you want to create a new email account you need to complete the form below. 

Step 24

Click local account 

Step 25 

Here you can choose a local user name and password. Choose finish to continue. 

Step 26 

At this stage Windows starts to finalize your settings. You will get the following information screen as the installation moves forward. 

Step 29 


Finally the setup process is finished and you are presented with a completely new and unfamiliar Metro user interface. You have your most common application right in front of you. Clicking on any tiles will launch that application. At this point you can start using your computer. However, it may not be fully configured. You need to make sure that all the hardware is detected correctly and the necessary device drivers are installed. This can be done from the device manager. 

Introduction to new windows version (Windows 10)

Windows 10 is one of Microsoft’s biggest updates ever to Windows. It’s not a secret that Windows 8 was a failure in the market, so Microsoft had to get things it right with Windows 10. Judging from the positive reviews and high adoption rate, Microsoft did and Windows 10 is a success. Computing is changing and Windows is changing with it. There’s now no one-size fits all computing device for anyone and people are using all kinds of devices from tiny tablets to behemoth multi-monitor desktop juggernauts to work, play and communicate. Windows 10 is ready to work across all devices great and small. Building on the touch friendly features of Windows 8 but without compromising the productivity powerhouse of the Desktop, Windows 10 is an ideal fit whatever your device. Unusually, Windows 10 is being offered as a free upgrade for all existing Windows 7 and 8 home users. 


Requirements for installing Windows 10

1. Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster processor or SoC 

2. RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) for 32-bit or 2 GB for 64-bit 
3. Hard disk space: 16 GB for 32-bit OS 20 GB for 64-bit OS  
4. Graphics card: Direct X 9 or later with WDDM 1.0 driver 
5. Display: 800x600 

Features in windows 10

Most users expect the new OS to be head and shoulders above Microsoft's previous operating system, Windows 8.1. The new developed options are discussed below: 

The New Start Menu 

Microsoft has (thankfully) returned the Start menu to the lower left-hand corner of the user interface, and this time, the menu doesn't focus exclusively on desktop apps. There's a host of information that can be found in the Start menu, with Microsoft having added a metro-style dash, which incorporates Windows 8 style tiles into the menu. For those who don't want live tiles, they can be turned off. 


Windowed Apps

Windows Store apps have been given a refreshed look. Instead of being immediately dumped into a full-screen style app, they will be windowed, offering a mouse-friendly toolbar. These apps will also alter their interface to best fit the size of the user's display. 


Cortana

Some might not be ready to delve into the use of a personal assistant, however, Cortana is really convincing for those on the fence. This is the first time we have seen Cortana on desktop, and it's a very nice addition to the software. Cortana will ask for access to your personal information, after which it will use that information, coupled with cloud-based intelligence, to provide you with the information you seek. 

Hello

Hello will help users log into their systems without having to type in a password. Instead, users simply sit in front of their computer and the computer will recognize them and log in. Android has had a similar feature for a number of years now, but Microsoft suggests that its tech is more advanced, with special camera requirements and infrared use. Not many computers can use Hello just yet, but it's sure to appear on more computers as time goes on. 

Edge

There will certainly be skeptics for any Internet browser from Microsoft – given Internet Explorer's past but early reviews suggest that Edge is actually a pretty neat browser. It's been completely overhauled, including Cortana support and a note-taking mode that allows users to draw on web pages. It's important to mention that Edge does not support plugins at this time, but the feature is on the way. 

Action Center

Action Center takes the notification panel in Windows 8.1 to a new level. The Action Center is accessible through a simple swipe from the right of the screen, or by clicking on the Action Center icon in the task-bar. It essentially organizes all notifications from apps and provides access to a number of settings that are often used. 

Virtual Desktops

Virtual desktops have long been a feature that users have asked for, and at last, Microsoft has answered them with Windows 10. Virtual desktops basically allow users to organized full-screen apps or other "desktops" as they like, enabling them to switch between these desktops whenever they want. 

Xbox Streaming 

Many Windows users are also Xbox users, making this feature a huge step forward. This is especially important for those with multiple people in one household, as it allows Xbox players to play even when the TV is in use. The feature is currently still in beta, but it works pretty well over Wi-Fi and allows users to utilize the Xbox USB controller. Users can also record up to two hours of their playing to their computer's hard drive. 


Continuum

One of the biggest features in Windows 10 is Continuum. It allows users to seamlessly utilize devices that have both desktop and tablet modes, without having to change the layout of their desktop. On the Surface Pro 3, disconnecting the keyboard will cause apps and the start menu to go into full-screen mode. 

The feature will also allow smartphones to be used as desktop computers when connected to the right display.

Core Windows Apps

Maps such as Mail, Calendar, Photos and Maps have all been revamped, and this time around, the apps are good enough that people may actually want to use them. Apart from the new interfaces, the apps also feature Cortana integration, allowing the personal assistant to feed the user information based on their emails and calendar. 

Installation Steps of Windows 10 operating System

Step 1


For fresh installation insert the windows 10 disc into DVD writer and reboot your PC or laptop.

Step 2

As soon as your PC boots, go into the bios of your PC and set the DVD drive with the First boot priority. The popular keys to enter Setup are F2 and Delete. On older computers, try F1 or the key combination CTRL+ALT+ESC. 

Step 3 

once your pc gets restart, press any key when you see the “Press any key to boot from the USB option”. 

Step 4


 After a while you will able to see Windows setup screen & then click on next button. 

Step 5

Click on next. 

Step 6 


Now select custom installation option for fresh installation.

Step 7

At this point you’ll need to pick where to install Windows 10. You might need to delete or create a partition, as previous in case of windows 7 or windows 8.1. 

Step 8

Select the drive for new installation & click on next. You will see the installation screen. 

Step 9


Once the PC reboots again, you’ll be able to select the settings like whether Windows Updates are enabled (they aren’t allowed to be disabled in the preview). We’d recommend just using the express settings if you are using a test machine — use Custom if you’re really going to use the computer.  

Step 10

And now you can sign into your Microsoft account. We’d recommend using a Microsoft account because otherwise you won’t be able to use half of the new features. If you don’t have Microsoft account create an account on spot, as there is option to create a new account.  

Step 11

Now windows 10 will introduce with one drive. It’s nicely integrated into Windows 10. One-drive is Microsoft's cloud service that's available for free to all the owners of a Microsoft account. One-drive offers users a simple way to store, sync and share all types of files, with other people and devices. 

Step 12

Now a colorful screen that tells us things are happening. You will see a new featured screen with full of tiles. For directly get in to the desktop select the “desktop” tile or you can press Windows key & D together to directly get in to the desktop screen. 

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