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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

EASY SUBNETTING

The following ICND1 exam topics are covered in this chapter :
1 IP addressing (IPv4 / IPv6)
Image result for SUBNETTING"
■Describe the operation and necessity of using private and 
public IP addresses for IPv4 addressing 

We’ll pick up right where we left off in the last chapter and continue to explore the world of IP addressing. I’ll open this chapter 
by telling you how to subnet an IP network—an indispensably 
crucial skill that’s central to mastering networking in general! Forewarned is forearmed, so 
prepare yourself because being able to subnet quickly and accurately is pretty challenging and 
you’ll need time to practice what you’ve learned to really nail it. So be patient and don’t give 
up on this key aspect of networking until your skills are seriously sharp. I’m not kidding—
this chapter is so important you should really just graft it into your brain! 
So be ready because we’re going to hit the ground running and thoroughly cover IP 
subnetting from the very start. And though I know this will sound weird to you, you’ll be 
much better off if you just try to forget everything you’ve learned about subnetting before 
reading this chapter—especially if you’ve been to an official Cisco or Microsoft class! I 
think these forms of special torture often do more harm than good and sometimes even 
scare people away from networking completely. Those that survive and persevere usually 
at least question the sanity of continuing to study in this field. If this is you, relax, breathe, 

and know that you’ll find that the way I tackle the issue of subnetting is relatively painless 

because I’m going to show you a whole new, much easier method to conquer this monster! 
After working through this chapter, and I can’t say this enough, after working through 
the extra study material at the end as well, you’ll be able to tame the IP addressing/subnetting 
beast—just don’t give up! I promise that you’ll be really glad you didn’t. It’s one of those things 
that once you get it down, you’ll wonder why you used to think it was so hard! 
To find up-to-the minute updates for this chapter, please see 
www.lammle.com/forum or the book’s web page at www.sybex.com.

Sub-netting Basics

 “TCP/IP,” you learned how to define and find the valid host ranges used in a 
Class A, Class B, and Class C network address by turning the host bits all off and then all 
on. This is very good, but here’s the catch: you were defining only one network, 

Sub-netting Basics
 
One network
.2 .3 .4 .5 .130 .130 .131 .132
192.168.10.0/24
. . . . . . . . . 
One large broadcast domain!
 By now you know that having one large network is not a good thing because the first 
three chapters you just read were veritably peppered with me incessantly telling you that! 
But how would you fix the out of control problem that Figure 4.1 illustrates? Wouldn’t it 
be nice to be able to break up that one, huge network address and create four manageable 
networks from it? You betcha it would, but to make that happen, you would need to apply 
the infamous trick of subnetting because it’s the best way to break up a giant network into 
a bunch of smaller ones. 

Multiple networks connected together

192.168.10.64 192.168.10.96
192.168.10.32
192.168.10.0
What are those 192.168.10.x addresses shown in the figure? Well that is what this chapter 
will explain! How to make one network into many networks!
Let’s take off from where we left in Chapter 3 and start working in the host section (host bits) of a network address, where we can borrow bits to create subnets.

How to Create Subnets

Creating sub-networks is essentially the act of taking bits from the host portion of the address 
and reserving them to define the subnet address instead. Clearly this will result in fewer bits 
being available for defining your hosts, which is something you’ll always want to keep in mind.
Later in this chapter, I’ll guide you through the entire process of creating subnets starting 
with Class C addresses. As always in networking, before you actually implement anything, 
including subnetting, you must first determine your current requirements and make sure to 
plan for future conditions as well.
In this first section, we’ll be discussing classful routing, which refers to 
the fact that all hosts (nodes) in the network are using the exact same sub￾net mask. Later, when we move on to cover variable length subnet masks 
(VLSMs), I’ll tell you all about classless routing, which is an environment 
wherein each network segment can use a different subnet mask.
Okay—to create a subnet, we’ll start by fulfilling these three steps:
1. Determine the number of required network IDs:
 One for each LAN subnet
 One for each wide area network connection
2. Determine the number of required host IDs per subnet:
 One for each TCP/IP host
 One for each router interface
3. Based on the above requirements, create the following:
A unique subnet mask for your entire network
A unique subnet ID for each physical segment
 A range of host IDs for each subnet
Subnet Masks
For the subnet address scheme to work, every machine on the network must know which 
part of the host address will be used as the subnet address. This condition is met by assign￾ing a subnet mask to each machine. A subnet mask is a 32-bit value that allows the device 
that’s receiving IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the 
host ID portion of the IP address. This 32-bit subnet mask is composed of 1s and 0s, where 
the 1s represent the positions that refer to the network subnet addresses. 
Not all networks need subnets, and if not, it really means that they’re using the default 
subnet mask, which is basically the same as saying that a network doesn’t have a subnet 

address. Table 4.1 shows the default subnet masks for Classes A, B, and C. 

Subnetting Basics 143
Table 4.1 Default subnet mask
Class Format Default Subnet Mask
A network.node.node.node 255.0.0.0
B network.network.node.node 255.255.0.0
C network.network.network.node 255.255.255.0
Although you can use any mask in any way on an interface, typically it’s not usually 
good to mess with the default masks. In other words, you don’t want to make a Class B 
subnet mask read 255.0.0.0, and some hosts won’t even let you type it in. But these days, 
most devices will. For a Class A network, you wouldn’t change the first byte in a subnet 
mask because it should read 255.0.0.0 at a minimum. Similarly, you wouldn’t assign 
255.255.255.255 because this is all 1s, which is a broadcast address. A Class B address 
starts with 255.255.0.0, and a Class C starts with 255.255.255.0, and for the CCNA 
especially, there is no reason to change the defaults!
Understanding the Powers of 2
Powers of 2 are important to understand and memorize for use with IP subnetting. Reviewing powers of 2, remember that when you see a number noted with an exponent, it means 
you should multiply the number by itself as many times as the upper number specifies. For 
example, 23 is 2 x 2 x 2, which equals 8. Here’s a list of powers of 2 to commit to memory:
21 = 2
22 = 4
23 = 8
24 = 16
25 = 32
26 = 64
27 = 128
28 = 256
29 = 512
210 = 1,024
211 = 2,048
212 = 4,096
213 = 8,192
214 = 16,384
Memorizing these powers of 2 is a good idea, but it’s not absolutely necessary. Just  remember that since you’re working with powers of 2, each successive power of 2 is  double the previous one. 

Easy Sub-netting

It works like this—all you have to do to remember the value of 29 is to first know that 28 = 256. 
Why? Because when you double 2 to the eighth power (256), you get 29 (or 512). To deter￾mine the value of 210, simply start at 28 = 256, and then double it twice.
You can go the other way as well. If you needed to know what 26 is, for example, you just 
cut 256 in half two times: once to reach 27 and then one more time to reach 26.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
Another term you need to familiarize yourself with is Classless Inter-Domain Routing 
(CIDR). It’s basically the method that Internet service providers (ISPs) use to allocate a 
number of addresses to a company, a home—their customers. They provide addresses in a 
certain block size, something I’ll talk about in greater detail soon.
When you receive a block of addresses from an ISP, what you get will look something 
like this: 192.168.10.32/28. This is telling you what your subnet mask is. The slash notation (/) means how many bits are turned on (1s). Obviously, the maximum could only be 
/32 because a byte is 8 bits and there are 4 bytes in an IP address: (4 n 8 = 32). But keep in 
mind that regardless of the class of address, the largest subnet mask available relevant to 
the Cisco exam objectives can only be a /30 because you’ve got to keep at least 2 bits for 
host bits.
Take, for example, a Class A default subnet mask, which is 255.0.0.0. This tells us that 
the first byte of the subnet mask is all ones (1s), or 11111111. When referring to a slash 
notation, you need to count all the 1-bits to figure out your mask. The 255.0.0.0 is considered a /8 because it has 8 bits that are 1s—that is, 8 bits that are turned on.
A Class B default mask would be 255.255.0.0, which is a /16 because 16 bits are ones 
(1s): 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000.
Table 4.2 has a listing of every available subnet mask and its equivalent CIDR slash 
notation.
Table 4. 2 CIDR values
Subnet Mask CIDR Value
255.0.0.0 /8
255.128.0.0 /9
255.192.0.0 /10
255.224.0.0 /11
Subnetting Basics 
Subnet Mask CIDR Value
255.240.0.0 /12
255.248.0.0 /13
255.252.0.0 /14
255.254.0.0 /15
255.255.0.0 /16
255.255.128.0 /17
255.255.192.0 /18
255.255.224.0 /19
255.255.240.0 /20
255.255.248.0 /21
255.255.252.0 /22
255.255.254.0 /23
255.255.255.0 /24
255.255.255.128 /25
255.255.255.192 /26
255.255.255.224 /27
255.255.255.240 /28
255.255.255.248 /29
255.255.255.252 /30
The /8 through /15 can only be used with Class A network addresses. /16 through /23 can 
be used by Class A and B network addresses. /24 through /30 can be used by Class A, B, and 
C network addresses. This is a big reason why most companies use Class A network addresses. 
Since they can use all subnet masks, they get the maximum flexibility in network design.
No, you cannot configure a Cisco router using this slash format. But 
wouldn’t that be nice? Nevertheless, it’s really important for you to know 
subnet masks in the slash notation (CIDR).
IP Subnet-Zero
Even though IP subnet-zero is not a new command, Cisco course-ware and Cisco exam 
objectives didn’t used to cover it. Know that Cisco certainly covers it now! This command 
allows you to use the first and last subnet in your network design. For instance, the Class 
C mask of 255.255.255.192 provides subnets 64 and 128, another facet of subnetting that 
we’ll discuss more thoroughly later in this chapter. But with the ip subnet-zero command, 
you now get to use subnets 0, 64, 128, and 192. It may not seem like a lot, but this provides 
two more subnets for every subnet mask we use.
Even though we don’t discuss the command-line interface (CLI) until Chapter 6, “Cisco’s 
Internet-working Operating System (IOS),” it’s important for you to be at least a little familiar 
with this command at this point: 
Router#sh running-config
Building configuration...
Current configuration : 827 bytes
!
hostname Pod1R1
!
ip subnet-zero
!
This router output shows that the command ip subnet-zero is enabled on the router. 
Cisco has turned this command on by default starting with Cisco IOS version 12.x and 
now we’re running 15.x code. 
When taking your Cisco exams, make sure you read very carefully to see if Cisco is ask￾ing you not to use ip subnet-zero. There are actually instances where this may happen. 
Subnetting Class C Addresses
There are many different ways to subnet a network. The right way is the way that works best 
for you. In a Class C address, only 8 bits are available for defining the hosts. Remember that 
subnet bits start at the left and move to the right, without skipping bits. This means that the 
only Class C subnet masks can be the following:
Binary Decimal CIDR
---------------------------------------------------------
00000000 = 255.255.255.0 /24

10000000 = 255.255.255.128 /25
11000000 = 255.255.255.192 /26
11100000 = 255.255.255.224 /27
11110000 = 255.255.255.240 /28
11111000 = 255.255.255.248 /29
11111100 = 255.255.255.252 /30
We can’t use a /31 or /32 because, as I’ve said, we must have at least 2 host bits for 
assigning IP addresses to hosts. But this is only mostly true. Certainly we can never use 
a /32 because that would mean zero host bits available, yet Cisco has various forms of 
the IOS, as well as the new Cisco Nexus switches operating system, that support the /31 
mask. The /31 is above the scope of the CCENT and CCNA objectives, so we won’t be 
covering it in this book. 
Coming up, I’m going to teach you that significantly less painful method of subnetting I 
promised you at the beginning of this chapter, which makes it ever so much easier to subnet 
larger numbers in a flash. Excited—good! Because I’m not kidding when I tell you that you 
absolutely need to be able to subnet quickly and accurately to succeed in the networking 
real world and on the exam too!
Subnetting a Class C Address—The Fast Way!
When you’ve chosen a possible subnet mask for your network and need to determine the 
number of subnets, valid hosts, and the broadcast addresses of a subnet that mask will 
provide, all you need to do is answer five simple questions:
 How many subnets does the chosen subnet mask produce?
How many valid hosts per subnet are available?
 What are the valid subnets?
 What’s the broadcast address of each subnet?
 What are the valid hosts in each subnet?
This is where you’ll be really glad you followed my advice and took the time to memorize 
your powers of 2. If you didn’t, now would be a good time… Just refer back to the sidebar, 
“Understanding the Powers of 2,” earlier if you need to brush up. Here’s how you arrive at 
the answers to those five big questions:
How many subnets? 2x = number of subnets. x is the number of masked bits, or the 1s. 
For example, in 11000000, the number of 1s gives us 22 subnets. So in this example, 
there are 4 subnets.
How many hosts per subnet? 2y – 2 = number of hosts per subnet. y is the number of 
unmasked bits, or the 0s. For example, in 11000000, the number of 0s gives us 26 – 2 
hosts, or 62 hosts per subnet. You need to subtract 2 for the subnet address and the 
broadcast address, which are not valid hosts.
What are the valid subnets? 256 – subnet mask = block size, or increment number. An 

example would be the 255.255.255.192 mask, where the interesting octet is the fourth 
148 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
octet (interesting because that is where our subnet numbers are). Just use this math: 
256 – 192 = 64. The block size of a 192 mask is always 64. Start counting at zero in 
blocks of 64 until you reach the subnet mask value and these are your subnets in the 
fourth octet: 0, 64, 128, 192. Easy, huh?
uu What’s the broadcast address for each subnet? Now here’s the really easy part. Since we 
counted our subnets in the last section as 0, 64, 128, and 192, the broadcast address is 
always the number right before the next subnet. For example, the 0 subnet has a broad￾cast address of 63 because the next subnet is 64. The 64 subnet has a broadcast address 
of 127 because the next subnet is 128, and so on. Remember, the broadcast address of 
the last subnet is always 255.
uu What are the valid hosts? Valid hosts are the numbers between the subnets, omitting 
the all-0s and all-1s. For example, if 64 is the subnet number and 127 is the broadcast 
address, then 65–126 is the valid host range. Your valid range is always the group of 
numbers between the subnet address and the broadcast address.
If you’re still confused, don’t worry because it really isn’t as hard as it seems to be at first—
just hang in there! To help lift any mental fog, try a few of the practice examples next.
Subnetting Practice Examples: Class C Addresses
Here’s your opportunity to practice subnetting Class C addresses using the method I just 
described. This is so cool. We’re going to start with the first Class C subnet mask and work 
through every subnet that we can, using a Class C address. When we’re done, I’ll show you 
how easy this is with Class A and B networks too!
Practice Example #1C: 255.255.255.128 (/25)
Since 128 is 10000000 in binary, there is only 1 bit for subnetting and 7 bits for hosts. We’re 
going to subnet the Class C network address 192.168.10.0.
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.128 = Subnet mask
Now, let’s answer our big five:
How many subnets? Since 128 is 1 bit on (10000000), the answer would be 21 = 2.
How many hosts per subnet? We have 7 host bits off (10000000), so the equation would 
be 27 – 2 = 126 hosts. Once you figure out the block size of a mask, the amount of hosts 
is always the block size minus 2. No need to do extra math if you don’t need to!
What are the valid subnets? 256 – 128 = 128. Remember, we’ll start at zero and count in 
our block size, so our subnets are 0, 128. By just counting your subnets when counting 
in your block size, you really don’t need to do steps 1 and 2. We can see we have two sub￾nets, and in the step before this one, just remember that the amount of hosts is always the 
block size minus 2, and in this example, that gives us 2 subnets, each with 126 hosts.
 What’s the broadcast address for each subnet? The number right before the value of 
the next subnet is all host bits turned on and equals the broadcast address. For the zero 

subnet, the next subnet is 128, so the broadcast of the 0 subnet is 127.

Subnetting Basics 149
uu What are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the subnet and broadcast 
address. The easiest way to find the hosts is to write out the subnet address and the 
broadcast address, which makes valid hosts completely obvious. The following table 
shows the 0 and 128 subnets, the valid host ranges of each, and the broadcast address 
of both subnets:
Subnet 0 128
First host 1 129
Last host 126 254
Broadcast 127 255
Okay, looking at a Class C /25, it’s pretty clear that there are two subnets. But so what—
why is this significant? Well actually, it’s not because that’s not the right question. What you 
really want to know is what you would do with this information! 
I know this isn’t exactly everyone’s favorite pastime, but what we’re about to do is really 
important, so bear with me; we’re going to talk about subnetting—period. The key to under￾standing subnetting is to understand the very reason you need to do it, and I’m going to dem￾onstrate this by going through the process of building a physical network. 
Okay—because we added that router shown in Figure 4.3, in order for the hosts on our 
internetwork to communicate, they must now have a logical network addressing scheme. 
We could use IPv6, but IPv4 is still the most popular for now. It’s also what we’re studying 
at the moment, so that’s what we’re going with. 
F ig u re 4. 3 Implementing a Class C /25 logical network
192.168.10.0 .1 .129 192.168.10.128
Router#show ip route
 [output cut]
C 192.168.10.0 is directly connected to Ethernet 0
C 192.168.10.128 is directly connected to Ethernet 1
.4.3.2 .130 .131 .132
Looking at Figure 4.3, you can see that there are two physical networks, so we’re going to 
implement a logical addressing scheme that allows for two logical networks. As always, it’s 
a really good idea to look ahead and consider likely short- and long-term growth scenarios, 

but for this example in this book, a /25 gets it done.

150 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
Figure 4.3 shows us that both subnets have been assigned to a router interface, which cre￾ates our broadcast domains and assigns our subnets. Use the command show ip route to see 
the routing table on a router. Notice that instead of one large broadcast domain, there are now 
two smaller broadcast domains, providing for up to 126 hosts in each. The C in the router out￾put translates to “directly connected network,” and we can see we have two of those with two 
broadcast domains and that we created and implemented them. So congratulations—you did 
it! You have successfully subnetted a network and applied it to a network design. Nice! Let’s 
do it again.
Practice Example #2C: 255.255.255.192 (/26)
This time, we’re going to subnet the network address 192.168.10.0 using the subnet mask 
255.255.255.192.
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.192 = Subnet mask
Now, let’s answer the big five:
uu How many subnets? Since 192 is 2 bits on (11000000), the answer would be 
22 = 4 subnets.
uu How many hosts per subnet? We have 6 host bits off (11000000), giving us 26 – 2 = 62 
hosts. The amount of hosts is always the block-size minus 2.
uu What are the valid subnets? 256 – 192 = 64. Remember, to start at zero and count in 
our block size. This means our subnets are 0, 64, 128, and 192. We can see we have a 
block size of 64, so we have 4 subnets, each with 62 hosts.
uu What’s the broadcast address for each subnet? The number right before the value of 
the next subnet is all host bits turned on and equals the broadcast address. For the zero 
subnet, the next subnet is 64, so the broadcast address for the zero subnet is 63.
uu What are the valid hosts? These are the numbers between the subnet and broadcast 
address. As I said, the easiest way to find the hosts is to write out the subnet address 
and the broadcast address, which clearly delimits our valid hosts. The following table 
shows the 0, 64, 128, and 192 subnets, the valid host ranges of each, and the broadcast 
address of each subnet:
The subnets (do this first) 0 64 128 192
Our first host (perform host 
addressing last)
1 65 129 193
Our last host 62 126 190 254
The broadcast address 
(do this second)
63 127 191 255
Subnetting Basics 151
Okay, again, before getting into the next example, you can see that we can now subnet 
a /26 as long as we can count in increments of 64. And what are you going to do with 
this fascinating information? Implement it! We’ll use Figure 4.4 to practice a /26 network 
implementation.
F ig u re 4. 4 Implementing a class C /26 (with three networks)
192.168.10.64 .129 192.168.10.128 .1 .65
Router#show ip route
 [output cut]
C 192.168.10.0 is directly connected to Ethernet 0
C 192.168.10.64 is directly connected to Ethernet 1
C 192.168.10.128 is directly connected to Ethernet 2
.66 .67 .68 .130 .131 .132
192.168.10.0
.3.2 .5.4
The /26 mask provides four subnetworks, and we need a subnet for each router interface. 
With this mask, in this example, we actually have room with a spare subnet to add to another 
router interface in the future. Always plan for growth if possible!
Practice Example #3C: 255.255.255.224 (/27)
This time, we’ll subnet the network address 192.168.10.0 and subnet mask 
255.255.255.224.
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.224 = Subnet mask
uu How many subnets? 224 is 11100000, so our equation would be 23 = 8.
uu How many hosts? 25 – 2 = 30.
uu What are the valid subnets? 256 – 224 = 32. We just start at zero and count to the sub￾net mask value in blocks (increments) of 32: 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, and 224.
uu What’s the broadcast address for each subnet (always the number right before the 
next subnet)?
uu What are the valid hosts (the numbers between the subnet number and the broadcast 

address)?

Subnetting Basics 153
Practice Example #4C: 255.255.255.240 (/28)
Let’s practice another one:
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.240 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 240 is 11110000 in binary. 24 = 16.
uu Hosts? 4 host bits, or 24 – 2 = 14.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 240 = 16. Start at 0: 0 + 16 = 16. 16 + 16 = 32. 32 + 16 = 48. 48 
+ 16 = 64. 64 + 16 = 80. 80 + 16 = 96. 96 + 16 = 112. 112 + 16 = 128. 128 + 16 = 144. 
144 + 16 = 160. 160 + 16 = 176. 176 + 16 = 192. 192 + 16 = 208. 208 + 16 = 224. 224 
+ 16 = 240.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
To answer the last two questions, check out the following table. It gives you the subnets, 
valid hosts, and broadcast addresses for each subnet. First, find the address of each subnet using 
the block size (increment). Second, find the broadcast address of each subnet increment, which 
is always the number right before the next valid subnet, and then just fill in the host addresses. 
The following table shows the available subnets, hosts, and broadcast addresses provided from 
a Class C 255.255.255.240 mask.

Broadcast 255
Cisco has figured out that most people cannot count in 16s and therefore 
have a hard time finding valid subnets, hosts, and broadcast addresses 
with the Class C 255.255.255.240 mask. You’d be wise to study this mask.
Practice Example #5C: 255.255.255.248 (/29)
Let’s keep practicing:
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.248 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 248 in binary = 11111000. 25 = 32.
uu Hosts? 23 – 2 = 6.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 248 = 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64, 72, 80, 88, 96, 104, 112, 120, 

128, 136, 144, 152, 160, 168, 176, 184, 192, 200, 208, 216, 224, 232, 240, and 248.

154 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
Take a look at the following table. It shows some of the subnets (first four and last four 
only), valid hosts, and broadcast addresses for the Class C 255.255.255.248 mask:
Subnet 0 8 16 24 … 224 232 240 248
First host 1 9 17 25 … 225 233 241 249
Last host 6 14 22 30 … 230 238 246 254
Broadcast 7 15 23 31 … 231 239 247 255
If you try to configure a router interface with the address 192.168.10.6 
255.255.255.248 and receive this error:
Bad mask /29 for address 192.168.10.6
It means that ip subnet-zero is not enabled. You must be able to subnet 
to see that the address used in this example is in the zero subnet!
Practice Example #6C: 255.255.255.252 (/30)
Okay—just one more:
192.168.10.0 = Network address
255.255.255.252 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 64.
uu Hosts? 2.
uu Valid subnets? 0, 4, 8, 12, etc., all the way to 252.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet? (always the number right before the next subnet)
uu Valid hosts? (the numbers between the subnet number and the broadcast address)
The following table shows you the subnet, valid host, and broadcast address of the first 
four and last four subnets in the 255.255.255.252 Class C subnet:
Subnet 0 4 8 12 … 240 244 248 252
First host 1 5 9 13 … 241 245 249 253
Last host 2 6 10 14 … 242 246 250 254

Broadcast 3 7 11 15 … 243 247 251 255

Subnetting Basics 155
Should We Really Use This Mask That Provides Only Two Hosts?
You are the network administrator for Acme Corporation in San Francisco, with dozens 
of WAN links connecting to your corporate office. Right now your network is a classful 
network, which means that the same subnet mask is on each host and router interface. 
You’ve read about classless routing, where you can have different sized masks, but don’t 
know what to use on your point-to-point WAN links. Is the 255.255.255.252 (/30) a helpful 
mask in this situation?
Yes, this is a very helpful mask in wide area networks!
If you were to use the 255.255.255.0 mask in this situation, then each network would have 
254 hosts. But you use only 2 addresses with a WAN link, which is a waste of 252 hosts per 
subnet! If you use the 255.255.255.252 mask, then each subnet has only 2 hosts, and you 
don’t want to waste precious addresses. This is a really important subject, one that we’ll 
address in a lot more detail in the section on VLSM network design in the next chapter! 
Subnetting in Your Head: Class C Addresses
It really is possible to subnet in your head? Yes, and it’s not all that hard either—take the 
following example:
192.168.10.50 = Node address
255.255.255.224 = Subnet mask
First, determine the subnet and broadcast address of the network in which the above 
IP address resides. You can do this by answering question 3 of the big 5 questions: 256 – 
224 = 32. 0, 32, 64, and so on. The address of 33 falls between the two subnets of 32 and 
64 and must be part of the 192.168.10.32 subnet. The next subnet is 64, so the broadcast 
address of the 32 subnet is 63. Don’t forget that the broadcast address of a subnet is always 
the number right before the next subnet. The valid host range equals the numbers between 
the subnet and broadcast address, or 33–62. This is too easy!
Okay, let’s try another one. We’ll subnet another Class C address:
192.168.10.50 = Node address
255.255.255.240 = Subnet mask
What is the subnet and broadcast address of the network of which the above IP address 
is a member? 256 – 240 = 16. Now just count by our increments of 16 until we pass the 
host address: 0, 16, 32, 48, 64. Bingo—the host address is between the 48 and 64 subnets. 
The subnet is 192.168.10.48, and the broadcast address is 63 because the next subnet is 
64. The valid host range equals the numbers between the subnet number and the broadcast 

address, or 49–62.

156 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
Let’s do a couple more to make sure you have this down.
You have a node address of 192.168.10.174 with a mask of 255.255.255.240. What is 
the valid host range?
The mask is 240, so we’d do a 256 – 240 = 16. This is our block size. Just keep adding 
16 until we pass the host address of 174, starting at zero, of course: 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 
96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176. The host address of 174 is between 160 and 176, so the subnet 
is 160. The broadcast address is 175; the valid host range is 161–174. That was a tough one!
One more—just for fun. This one is the easiest of all Class C subnetting:
192.168.10.17 = Node address
255.255.255.252 = Subnet mask
What is the subnet and broadcast address of the subnet in which the above IP address 
resides? 256 – 252 = 0 (always start at zero unless told otherwise). 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 
etc. You’ve got it! The host address is between the 16 and 20 subnets. The subnet is 
192.168.10.16, and the broadcast address is 19. The valid host range is 17–18.
Now that you’re all over Class C subnetting, let’s move on to Class B subnetting. But 
before we do, let’s go through a quick review.
What Do We Know?
Okay—here’s where you can really apply what you’ve learned so far and begin committing 
it all to memory. This is a very cool section that I’ve been using in my classes for years. It 
will really help you nail down subnetting for good!
When you see a subnet mask or slash notation (CIDR), you should know the following:
/25 What do we know about a /25?
uu 128 mask
uu 1 bit on and 7 bits off (10000000)
uu Block size of 128
uu Subnets 0 and 128
uu 2 subnets, each with 126 hosts
/26 What do we know about a /26?
uu 192 mask
uu 2 bits on and 6 bits off (11000000)
uu Block size of 64
uu Subnet 0, 64, 128, 192
uu 4 subnets, each with 62 hosts
/27 What do we know about a /27?
uu 224 mask

uu 3 bits on and 5 bits off (11100000)
uu Block size of 32
uu Subnets 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224
uu 8 subnets, each with 30 hosts
/28 What do we know about a /28?
uu 240 mask
uu 4 bits on and 4 bits off
uu Block size of 16
uu Subnets 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96, 112, 128, 144, 160, 176, 192, 208, 224, 240
uu 16 subnets, each with 14 hosts
/29 What do we know about a /29?
uu 248 mask
uu 5 bits on and 3 bits off
uu Block size of 8
uu Subnets 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, etc. 
uu 32 subnets, each with 6 hosts
/30 What do we know about a /30?
uu 252 mask
uu 6 bits on and 2 bits off
uu Block size of 4
uu Subnets 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, etc.
uu 64 subnets, each with 2 hosts
The below table 4.3 puts all of the above information into one compact little table. You 
should practice writing this table out on scratch paper, and if you can do it, write it down 
before you start your exam!
Regardless of whether you have a Class A, Class B, or Class C address, the /30 mask will 
provide you with only two hosts, ever. As suggested by Cisco, this mask is suited almost 
exclusively for use on point-to-point links.
If you can memorize this “What Do We Know?” section, you’ll be much better off in 
your day-to-day job and in your studies. Try saying it out loud, which helps you memorize 
things—yes, your significant other and/or coworkers will think you’ve lost it, but they 
probably already do if you’re in the networking field anyway. And if you’re not yet in the 
networking field but are studying all this to break into it, get used to it!
It’s also helpful to write these on some type of flashcards and have people test your skill. 
You’d be amazed at how fast you can get subnetting down if you memorize block sizes as 
well as this “What Do We Know?” section.
Subnetting Class B Addresses
Before we dive into this, let’s look at all the possible Class B subnet masks first. Notice that 
we have a lot more possible subnet masks than we do with a Class C network address:
255.255.0.0 (/16)
255.255.128.0 (/17) 255.255.255.0 (/24)
255.255.192.0 (/18) 255.255.255.128 (/25)
255.255.224.0 (/19) 255.255.255.192 (/26)
255.255.240.0 (/20) 255.255.255.224 (/27)
255.255.248.0 (/21) 255.255.255.240 (/28)
255.255.252.0 (/22) 255.255.255.248 (/29)
255.255.254.0 (/23) 255.255.255.252 (/30)
We know the Class B network address has 16 bits available for host addressing. This 
means we can use up to 14 bits for subnetting because we need to leave at least 2 bits for 
host addressing. Using a /16 means you are not subnetting with Class B, but it is a mask 

you can use!

By the way, do you notice anything interesting about that list of subnet 
values—a pattern, maybe? Ah ha! That’s exactly why I had you memorize 
the binary-to-decimal numbers earlier in Chapter 2. Since subnet mask bits 
start on the left and move to the right and bits can’t be skipped, the num￾bers are always the same regardless of the class of address. If you haven’t 
already, memorize this pattern!
The process of subnetting a Class B network is pretty much the same as it is for a Class C, 
except that you have more host bits and you start in the third octet.
Use the same subnet numbers for the third octet with Class B that you used for the 
fourth octet with Class C, but add a zero to the network portion and a 255 to the broad￾cast section in the fourth octet. The following table shows you an example host range of 
two subnets used in a Class B 240 (/20) subnet mask:
Subnet address 16.0 32.0
Broadcast address 31.255 47.255
Just add the valid hosts between the numbers and you’re set!
The preceding example is true only until you get up to /24. After that, it’s 
numerically exactly like Class C.
Subnetting Practice Examples: Class B Addresses
The following sections will give you an opportunity to practice subnetting Class B addresses. 
Again, I have to mention that this is the same as subnetting with Class C, except we start in 
the third octet—with the exact same numbers!
Practice Example #1B: 255.255.128.0 (/17)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.128.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 21 = 2 (same amount as Class C).
uu Hosts? 215 – 2 = 32,766 (7 bits in the third octet, and 8 in the fourth).
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 128 = 128. 0, 128. Remember that subnetting is performed in the 
third octet, so the subnet numbers are really 0.0 and 128.0, as shown in the next table. 
These are the exact numbers we used with Class C; we use them in the third octet and 
add a 0 in the fourth octet for the network address.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?

uu Valid hosts?

The following table shows the two subnets available, the valid host range, and the 
broadcast address of each:
Subnet 0.0 128.0
First host 0.1 128.1
Last host 127.254 255.254
Broadcast 127.255 255.255
Okay, notice that we just added the fourth octet’s lowest and highest values and came 
up with the answers. And again, it’s done exactly the same way as for a Class C subnet. We 
just used the same numbers in the third octet and added 0 and 255 in the fourth octet—
pretty simple, huh? I really can’t say this enough: it’s just not that hard. The numbers never 
change; we just use them in different octets!
Question: Using the above subnet mask, do you think 172.16.10.0 is a valid host 
address? What about 172.16.10.255? Can 0 and 255 in the fourth octet ever be a valid 
host address? The answer is absolutely, yes, those are valid hosts! Any number between 
the subnet number and the broadcast address is always a valid host.
Practice Example #2B: 255.255.192.0 (/18)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.192.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 22 = 4.
uu Hosts? 214 – 2 = 16,382 (6 bits in the third octet, and 8 in the fourth).
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 192 = 64. 0, 64, 128, 192. Remember that the subnetting is per￾formed in the third octet, so the subnet numbers are really 0.0, 64.0, 128.0, and 192.0, 
as shown in the next table.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the four subnets available, the valid host range, and the 
broadcast address of each:
Subnet 0.0 64.0 128.0 192.0
First host 0.1 64.1 128.1 192.1
Last host 63.254 127.254 191.254 255.254

Broadcast 63.255 127.255 191.255 255.255

Again, it’s pretty much the same as it is for a Class C subnet—we just added 0 and 255 
in the fourth octet for each subnet in the third octet.
Practice Example #3B: 255.255.240.0 (/20)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.240.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 24 = 16.
uu Hosts? 212 – 2 = 4094.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 240 = 0, 16, 32, 48, etc., up to 240. Notice that these are the 
same numbers as a Class C 240 mask—we just put them in the third octet and add a 
0 and 255 in the fourth octet.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first four subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast addresses in 
a Class B 255.255.240.0 mask:
Subnet 0.0 16.0 32.0 48.0
First host 0.1 16.1 32.1 48.1
Last host 15.254 31.254 47.254 63.254
Broadcast 15.255 31.255 47.255 63.255
Practice Example #4B: 255.255.248.0 (/21)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.248.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 25 = 32.
uu Hosts? 211 – 2 = 2046.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 248 = 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, etc., up to 248.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?

uu Valid hosts?

162 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
The following table shows the first five subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast addresses in a 
Class B 255.255.248.0 mask:
Subnet 0.0 8.0 16.0 24.0 32.0
First host 0.1 8.1 16.1 24.1 32.1
Last host 7.254 15.254 23.254 31.254 39.254
Broadcast 7.255 15.255 23.255 31.255 39.255
Practice Example #5B: 255.255.252.0 (/22)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.252.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 26 = 64.
uu Hosts? 210 – 2 = 1022.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 252 = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, etc., up to 252.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first five subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast addresses in a 
Class B 255.255.252.0 mask: 
Subnet 0.0 4.0 8.0 12.0 16.0
First host 0.1 4.1 8.1 12.1 16.1
Last host 3.254 7.254 11.254 15.254 19.254
Broadcast 3.255 7.255 11.255 15.255 19.255
Practice Example #6B: 255.255.254.0 (/23)
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.254.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 27 = 128.
uu Hosts? 29 – 2 = 510.

uu Valid subnets? 256 – 254 = 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., up to 254.

Subnetting Basics 163
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first five subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast addresses in a 
Class B 255.255.254.0 mask:
Subnet 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0
First host 0.1 2.1 4.1 6.1 8.1
Last host 1.254 3.254 5.254 7.254 9.254
Broadcast 1.255 3.255 5.255 7.255 9.255
Practice Example #7B: 255.255.255.0 (/24)
Contrary to popular belief, 255.255.255.0 used with a Class B network address is not called 
a Class B network with a Class C subnet mask. It’s amazing how many people see this mask 
used in a Class B network and think it’s a Class C subnet mask. This is a Class B subnet 
mask with 8 bits of subnetting—it’s logically different from a Class C mask. Subnetting this 
address is fairly simple:
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.255.0 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 28 = 256.
uu Hosts? 28 – 2 = 254.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 255 = 1. 0, 1, 2, 3, etc., all the way to 255.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first four and last two subnets, the valid hosts, and the 
broadcast addresses in a Class B 255.255.255.0 mask:
Subnet 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 ... 254.0 255.0
First host 0.1 1.1 2.1 3.1 ... 254.1 255.1
Last host 0.254 1.254 2.254 3.254 ... 254.254 255.254
Broadcast 0.255 1.255 2.255 3.255 ... 254.255 255.255
164 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
Practice Example #8B: 255.255.255.128 (/25)
This is actually one of the hardest subnet masks you can play with. And worse, it actually is 
a really good subnet to use in production because it creates over 500 subnets with 126 hosts 
for each subnet—a nice mixture. So, don’t skip over it!
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.255.128 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 29 = 512.
uu Hosts? 27 – 2 = 126.
uu Valid subnets? Okay, now for the tricky part. 256 – 255 = 1. 0, 1, 2, 3, etc., for the 
third octet. But you can’t forget the one subnet bit used in the fourth octet. Remember 
when I showed you how to figure one subnet bit with a Class C mask? You figure this 
the same way. You actually get two subnets for each third octet value, hence the 512 
subnets. For example, if the third octet is showing subnet 3, the two subnets would 
actually be 3.0 and 3.128.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet? The numbers right before the next subnet.
uu Valid hosts? The numbers between the subnet numbers and the broadcast address.
The following graphic shows how you can create subnets, valid hosts, and broadcast 
addresses using the Class B 255.255.255.128 subnet mask. The first eight subnets are 
shown, followed by the last two subnets:

Practice Example #9B: 255.255.255.192 (/26)
Now, this is where Class B subnetting gets easy. Since the third octet has a 255 in the 
mask section, whatever number is listed in the third octet is a subnet number. And now 
that we have a subnet number in the fourth octet, we can subnet this octet just as we did 
with Class C subnetting. Let’s try it out:
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.255.192 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 210 = 1024.
uu Hosts? 26 – 2 = 62.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 192 = 64. The subnets are shown in the following table. Do these 
numbers look familiar?'

Subnetting Basics 165
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first eight subnet ranges, valid hosts, and broadcast 
addresses:
Subnet 0.0 0.64 0.128 0.192 1.0 1.64 1.128 1.192
First host 0.1 0.65 0.129 0.193 1.1 1.65 1.129 1.193
Last host 0.62 0.126 0.190 0.254 1.62 1.126 1.190 1.254
Broadcast 0.63 0.127 0.191 0.255 1.63 1.127 1.191 1.255
Notice that for each subnet value in the third octet, you get subnets 0, 64, 128, and 192 
in the fourth octet.
Practice Example #10B: 255.255.255.224 (/27)
This one is done the same way as the preceding subnet mask, except that we just have more 
subnets and fewer hosts per subnet available.
172.16.0.0 = Network address
255.255.255.224 = Subnet mask
uu Subnets? 211 = 2048.
uu Hosts? 25 – 2 = 30.
uu Valid subnets? 256 – 224 = 32. 0, 32, 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 224.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first eight subnets:
Subnet 0.0 0.32 0.64 0.96 0.128 0.160 0.192 0.224
First host 0.1 0.33 0.65 0.97 0.129 0.161 0.193 0.225
Last host 0.30 0.62 0.94 0.126 0.158 0.190 0.222 0.254
Broadcast 0.31 0.63 0.95 0.127 0.159 0.191 0.223 0.255

166 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
This next table shows the last eight subnets:
Subnet 255.0 255.32 255.64 255.96 255.128 255.160 255.192 255.224
First host 255.1 255.33 255.65 255.97 255.129 255.161 255.193 255.225
Last host 255.30 255.62 255.94 255.126 255.158 255.190 255.222 255.254
Broadcast 255.31 255.63 255.95 255.127 255.159 255.191 255.223 255.255
Subnetting in Your Head: Class B Addresses
Are you nuts? Subnet Class B addresses in our heads? It’s actually easier than writing it out—
I’m not kidding! Let me show you how:
Question: What is the subnet and broadcast address of the subnet in which 
172.16.10.33 /27 resides?
Answer: The interesting octet is the fourth one. 256 – 224 = 32. 32 + 32 = 64. You’ve 
got it: 33 is between 32 and 64. But remember that the third octet is considered part 
of the subnet, so the answer would be the 10.32 subnet. The broadcast is 10.63, since 
10.64 is the next subnet. That was a pretty easy one.
Question: What subnet and broadcast address is the IP address 172.16.66.10 
255.255.192.0 (/18) a member of?
Answer: The interesting octet here is the third octet instead of the fourth one. 
256 – 192 = 64. 0, 64, 128. The subnet is 172.16.64.0. The broadcast must be 
172.16.127.255 since 128.0 is the next subnet.
Question: What subnet and broadcast address is the IP address 172.16.50.10 
255.255.224.0 (/19) a member of?
Answer: 256 – 224 = 0, 32, 64 (remember, we always start counting at 0). The subnet 
is 172.16.32.0, and the broadcast must be 172.16.63.255 since 64.0 is the next subnet.
Question: What subnet and broadcast address is the IP address 172.16.46.255 
255.255.240.0 (/20) a member of?
Answer: 256 – 240 = 16. The third octet is important here: 0, 16, 32, 48. This subnet 
address must be in the 172.16.32.0 subnet, and the broadcast must be 172.16.47.255 
since 48.0 is the next subnet. So, yes, 172.16.46.255 is a valid host.
Question: What subnet and broadcast address is the IP address 172.16.45.14 
255.255.255.252 (/30) a member of?
Answer: Where is our interesting octet? 256 – 252 = 0, 4, 8, 12, 16—the fourth. The 
subnet is 172.16.45.12, with a broadcast of 172.16.45.15 because the next subnet is 
172.16.45.16.

Question: What is the subnet and broadcast address of the host 172.16.88.255/20?
Subnetting Basics 167
Answer: What is a /20 written out in dotted decimal? If you can’t answer this, you 
can’t answer this question, can you? A /20 is 255.255.240.0, gives us a block size of 
16 in the third octet, and since no subnet bits are on in the fourth octet, the answer is 
always 0 and 255 in the fourth octet: 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96. Because 88 is between 
80 and 96, the subnet is 80.0 and the broadcast address is 95.255.
Question: A router receives a packet on an interface with a destination address of 
172.16.46.191/26. What will the router do with this packet?
Answer: Discard it. Do you know why? 172.16.46.191/26 is a 255.255.255.192 mask, 
which gives us a block size of 64. Our subnets are then 0, 64, 128 and 192. 191 is the 
broadcast address of the 128 subnet, and by default, a router will discard any broad￾cast packets.
Subnetting Class A Addresses
You don’t go about Class A subnetting any differently than Classes B and C, but there are 
24 bits to play with instead of the 16 in a Class B address and the 8 in a Class C address. 
Let’s start by listing all the Class A masks:
255.0.0.0 (/8)
255.128.0.0 (/9) 255.255.240.0 (/20)
255.192.0.0 (/10) 255.255.248.0 (/21)
255.224.0.0 (/11) 255.255.252.0 (/22)
255.240.0.0 (/12) 255.255.254.0 (/23)
255.248.0.0 (/13) 255.255.255.0 (/24)
255.252.0.0 (/14) 255.255.255.128 (/25)
255.254.0.0 (/15) 255.255.255.192 (/26)
255.255.0.0 (/16) 255.255.255.224 (/27)
255.255.128.0 (/17) 255.255.255.240 (/28)
255.255.192.0 (/18) 255.255.255.248 (/29)
255.255.224.0 (/19) 255.255.255.252 (/30)
That’s it. You must leave at least 2 bits for defining hosts. I hope you can see the pattern 
by now. Remember, we’re going to do this the same way as a Class B or C subnet. It’s just 
that, again, we simply have more host bits and we just use the same subnet numbers we used 
with Class B and C, but we start using these numbers in the second octet. However, the rea￾son class A addresses are so popular to implement is because they give the most flexibility. 
You can subnet in the 2nd, 3rd or 4th octet. I’ll show you this in the next examples.
Subnetting Practice Examples: Class A Addresses
When you look at an IP address and a subnet mask, you must be able to distinguish the 
bits used for subnets from the bits used for determining hosts. This is imperative. If you’re 
still struggling with this concept, please reread the section, “IP Addressing” in Chapter 3. 
It shows you how to determine the difference between the subnet and host bits and should 
help clear things up.
168 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
Practice Example #1A: 255.255.0.0 (/16)
Class A addresses use a default mask of 255.0.0.0, which leaves 22 bits for subnetting 
because you must leave 2 bits for host addressing. The 255.255.0.0 mask with a Class A 
address is using 8 subnet bits:
uu Subnets? 28 = 256.
uu Hosts? 216 – 2 = 65,534.
uu Valid subnets? What is the interesting octet? 256 – 255 = 1. 0, 1, 2, 3, etc. (all in the 
second octet). The subnets would be 10.0.0.0, 10.1.0.0, 10.2.0.0, 10.3.0.0, etc., up to 
10.255.0.0.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first two and the last two subnets, the valid host range 
and the broadcast addresses for the private Class A 10.0.0.0 network:
Subnet 10.0.0.0 10.1.0.0 … 10.254.0.0 10.255.0.0
First host 10.0.0.1 10.1.0.1 … 10.254.0.1 10.255.0.1
Last host 10.0.255.254 10.1.255.254 … 10.254.255.254 10.255.255.254
Broadcast 10.0.255.255 10.1.255.255 … 10.254.255.255 10.255.255.255
Practice Example #2A: 255.255.240.0 (/20)
255.255.240.0 gives us 12 bits of subnetting and leaves us 12 bits for host addressing.
uu Subnets? 212 = 4096.
uu Hosts? 212 – 2 = 4094.
uu Valid subnets? What is your interesting octet? 256 – 240 = 16. The subnets in the sec￾ond octet are a block size of 1 and the subnets in the third octet are 0, 16, 32, etc.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows some examples of the host ranges—the first three subnets and 
the last subnet:
Subnet 10.0.0.0 10.0.16.0 10.0.32.0 … 10.255.240.0
First host 10.0.0.1 10.0.16.1 10.0.32.1 … 10.255.240.1
Last host 10.0.15.254 10.0.31.254 10.0.47.254 … 10.255.255.254

Subnetting Basics 169
Subnet 10.0.0.0 10.0.16.0 10.0.32.0 … 10.255.240.0
Broadcast 10.0.15.255 10.0.31.255 10.0.47.255 … 10.255.255.255
Practice Example #3A: 255.255.255.192 (/26)
Let’s do one more example using the second, third, and fourth octets for subnetting:
uu Subnets? 218 = 262,144.
uu Hosts? 26 – 2 = 62.
uu Valid subnets? In the second and third octet, the block size is 1, and in the fourth 
octet, the block size is 64.
uu Broadcast address for each subnet?
uu Valid hosts?
The following table shows the first four subnets and their valid hosts and broadcast 
addresses in the Class A 255.255.255.192 mask:
Subnet 10.0.0.0 10.0.0.64 10.0.0.128 10.0.0.192
First host 10.0.0.1 10.0.0.65 10.0.0.129 10.0.0.193
Last host 10.0.0.62 10.0.0.126 10.0.0.190 10.0.0.254
Broadcast 10.0.0.63 10.0.0.127 10.0.0.191 10.0.0.255
This table shows the last four subnets and their valid hosts and broadcast addresses:
Subnet 10.255.255.0 10.255.255.64 10.255.255.128 10.255.255.192
First host 10.255.255.1 10.255.255.65 10.255.255.129 10.255.255.193
Last host 10.255.255.62 10.255.255.126 10.255.255.190 10.255.255.254
Broadcast 10.255.255.63 10.255.255.127 10.255.255.191 10.255.255.255
Subnetting in Your Head: Class A Addresses
Again, I know this sounds hard, but as with Class C and Class B, the numbers are the same; 
we just start in the second octet. What makes this easy? You only need to worry about the 
octet that has the largest block size, which is typically called the interesting octet, and one 
that is something other than 0 or 255, such as, for example, 255.255.240.0 (/20) with a Class 

170 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
A network. The second octet has a block size of 1, so any number listed in that octet is a sub￾net. The third octet is a 240 mask, which means we have a block size of 16 in the third octet. 
If your host ID is 10.20.80.30, what is your subnet, broadcast address, and valid host range?
The subnet in the second octet is 20 with a block size of 1, but the third octet is in block 
sizes of 16, so we’ll just count them out: 0, 16, 32, 48, 64, 80, 96… voilĂ ! By the way, you 
can count by 16s by now, right? Good! This makes our subnet 10.20.80.0, with a broadcast 
of 10.20.95.255 because the next subnet is 10.20.96.0. The valid host range is 10.20.80.1 
through 10.20.95.254. And yes, no lie! You really can do this in your head if you just get 
your block sizes nailed!
Okay, let’s practice on one more, just for fun!
Host IP: 10.1.3.65/23
First, you can’t answer this question if you don’t know what a /23 is. It’s 255.255.254.0. 
The interesting octet here is the third one: 256 – 254 = 2. Our subnets in the third octet are 
0, 2, 4, 6, etc. The host in this question is in subnet 2.0, and the next subnet is 4.0, so that 
makes the broadcast address 3.255. And any address between 10.1.2.1 and 10.1.3.254 is 
considered a valid host.
Summary
Did you read Chapters 3 and 4 and understand everything on the first pass? If so, that is 
fantastic—congratulations! However, you probably really did get lost a couple of times. No 
worries because as I told you, that’s what usually happens. Don’t waste time feeling bad if 
you have to read each chapter more than once, or even 10 times, before you’re truly good to 
go. If you do have to read the chapters more than once, you’ll be seriously better off in the 
long run even if you were pretty comfortable the first time through!
This chapter provided you with an important understanding of IP subnetting—the painless 
way! And when you’ve got the key material presented in this chapter really nailed down, you 
should be able to subnet IP addresses in your head.
This chapter is extremely essential to your Cisco certification process, so if you just 
skimmed it, please go back, read it thoroughly, and don’t forget to do all the written labs too! 
Exam Essentials
Identify the advantages of subnetting. Benefits of subnetting a physical network include 
reduced network traffic, optimized network performance, simplified management, and 
facilitated spanning of large geographical distances.
Describe the effect of the ip subnet-zero command. This command allows you to use 
the first and last subnet in your network design.

Identify the steps to subnet a classful network. Understand how IP addressing and subnet￾ting work. First, determine your block size by using the 256-subnet mask math. Then count 
your subnets and determine the broadcast address of each subnet—it is always the number 
right before the next subnet. Your valid hosts are the numbers between the subnet address 
and the broadcast address.
Determine possible block sizes. This is an important part of understanding IP address￾ing and subnetting. The valid block sizes are always 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, etc. You can 
determine your block size by using the 256-subnet mask math.
Describe the role of a subnet mask in IP addressing. A subnet mask is a 32-bit value that 
allows the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address 
from the host ID portion of the IP address.
Understand and apply the 2x – 2 formula. Use this formula to determine the proper sub￾net mask for a particular size network given the application of that subnet mask to a par￾ticular classful network.
Explain the impact of Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR). CIDR allows the creation 
of networks of a size other than those allowed with the classful subnetting by allowing 
more than the three classful subnet masks.
Written Labs
In this section, you’ll complete the following labs to make sure you’ve got the information 
and concepts contained within them fully dialed in:
Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1
Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2
Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3
The answers to these labs can be found in Appendix A, “Answers to Written Labs.”
Written Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1
Write the subnet, broadcast address, and a valid host range for question 1 through question 
6. Then answer the remaining questions.
1. 192.168.100.25/30
2. 192.168.100.37/28
3. 192.168.100.66/27
4. 192.168.100.17/29

5. 192.168.100.99/26
6. 192.168.100.99/25
7. You have a Class B network and need 29 subnets. What is your mask?
8. What is the broadcast address of 192.168.192.10/29?
9. How many hosts are available with a Class C /29 mask?
10. What is the subnet for host ID 10.16.3.65/23?
Written Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2
Given a Class B network and the net bits identified (CIDR), complete the following table to 
identify the subnet mask and the number of host addresses possible for each mask.
Classful Address Subnet Mask Number of Hosts per Subnet (2x – 2)
/16
/17
/18
/19
/20
/21
/22
/23
/24
/25
/26
/27
/28
/29

/30
Written Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3
Complete the following based on the decimal IP address.
Decimal IP Address Address Class
10.25.66.154/23
172.31.254.12/24
192.168.20.123/28
63.24.89.21/18
128.1.1.254/20

208.100.54.209/30
Number of Subnet 
and Host Bits
Number of 
Subnets (2x )
Number of 

Hosts (2x – 2)

Review Questions
The following questions are designed to test your understanding of this 
chapter’s material. For more information on how to get additional questions, 
please see this book’s introduction.
The answers to these questions can be found in Appendix B, “Answers to Chapter 
Review Questions.”
1. What is the maximum number of IP addresses that can be assigned to hosts on a local 
subnet that uses the 255.255.255.224 subnet mask?
A. 14
B. 15
C. 16
D. 30
E. 31
F. 62
2. You have a network that needs 29 subnets while maximizing the number of host addresses 
available on each subnet. How many bits must you borrow from the host field to provide 
the correct subnet mask?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5
E. 6
F. 7
3. What is the subnetwork address for a host with the IP address 200.10.5.68/28?
A. 200.10.5.56
B. 200.10.5.32
C. 200.10.5.64

D. 200.10.5.0

Review Questions 175
4. The network address of 172.16.0.0/19 provides how many subnets and hosts?
A. 7 subnets, 30 hosts each
B. 7 subnets, 2,046 hosts each
C. 7 subnets, 8,190 hosts each
D. 8 subnets, 30 hosts each
E. 8 subnets, 2,046 hosts each
F. 8 subnets, 8,190 hosts each
5. Which two statements describe the IP address 10.16.3.65/23? (Choose two.)
A. The subnet address is 10.16.3.0 255.255.254.0.
B. The lowest host address in the subnet is 10.16.2.1 255.255.254.0.
C. The last valid host address in the subnet is 10.16.2.254 255.255.254.0.
D. The broadcast address of the subnet is 10.16.3.255 255.255.254.0.
E. The network is not subnetted.
6. If a host on a network has the address 172.16.45.14/30, what is the subnetwork this 
host belongs to?
A. 172.16.45.0
B. 172.16.45.4
C. 172.16.45.8
D. 172.16.45.12
E. 172.16.45.16
7. Which mask should you use on point-to-point WAN links in order to reduce the waste 
of IP addresses?
A. /27
B. /28
C. /29
D. /30
E. /31
8. What is the sub-network number of a host with an IP address of 172.16.66.0/21?
A. 172.16.36.0
B. 172.16.48.0
C. 172.16.64.0

D. 172.16.0.0
176 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
9. You have an interface on a router with the IP address of 192.168.192.10/29. Including 
the router interface, how many hosts can have IP addresses on the LAN attached to the 
router interface?
A. 6
B. 8
C. 30
D. 62
E. 126
10. You need to configure a server that is on the subnet 192.168.19.24/29. The router has 
the first available host address. Which of the following should you assign to the server?
A. 192.168.19.0 255.255.255.0
B. 192.168.19.33 255.255.255.240
C. 192.168.19.26 255.255.255.248
D. 192.168.19.31 255.255.255.248
E. 192.168.19.34 255.255.255.240
11. You have an interface on a router with the IP address of 192.168.192.10/29. What is 
the broadcast address the hosts will use on this LAN?
A. 192.168.192.15
B. 192.168.192.31
C. 192.168.192.63
D. 192.168.192.127
E. 192.168.192.255
12. You need to subnet a network that has 5 subnets, each with at least 16 hosts. Which 
classful subnet mask would you use?
A. 255.255.255.192
B. 255.255.255.224
C. 255.255.255.240

D. 255.255.255.248
Review Questions 177
13. You configure a router interface with the IP address 192.168.10.62 255.255.255.192 
and receive the following error:
Bad mask /26 for address 192.168.10.62
Why did you receive this error?
A. You typed this mask on a WAN link and that is not allowed.
B. This is not a valid host and subnet mask combination.
C. ip subnet-zero is not enabled on the router.
D. The router does not support IP.
14. If an Ethernet port on a router were assigned an IP address of 172.16.112.1/25, what 
would be the valid subnet address of this interface?
A. 172.16.112.0
B. 172.16.0.0
C. 172.16.96.0
D. 172.16.255.0
E. 172.16.128.0
15. Using the following illustration, what would be the IP address of E0 if you were using 
the eighth subnet? The network ID is 192.168.10.0/28 and you need to use the last 
available IP address in the range. The zero subnet should not be considered valid for 
this question.
S0
192.168.10.0/28
E0
A. 192.168.10.142
B. 192.168.10.66
C. 192.168.100.254
D. 192.168.10.143

E. 192.168.10.126
178 Chapter 4 u Easy Subnetting
16. Using the illustration from the previous question, what would be the IP address of S0 
if you were using the first subnet? The network ID is 192.168.10.0/28 and you need to 
use the last available IP address in the range. Again, the zero subnet should not be con￾sidered valid for this question.
A. 192.168.10.24
B. 192.168.10.62
C. 192.168.10.30
D. 192.168.10.127
17. Which configuration command must be in effect to allow the use of 8 subnets if the 
Class C subnet mask is 255.255.255.224?
A. Router(config)#ip classless
B. Router(config)#ip version 6
C. Router(config)#no ip classful
D. Router(config)#ip unnumbered
E. Router(config)#ip subnet-zero
F. Router(config)#ip all-nets
18. You have a network with a subnet of 172.16.17.0/22. Which is the valid host address?
A. 172.16.17.1 255.255.255.252
B. 172.16.0.1 255.255.240.0
C. 172.16.20.1 255.255.254.0
D. 172.16.16.1 255.255.255.240
E. 172.16.18.255 255.255.252.0
F. 172.16.0.1 255.255.255.0
19. Your router has the following IP address on Ethernet0: 172.16.2.1/23. Which of the following can be valid host IDs on the LAN interface attached to the router? (Choose two.)
A. 172.16.0.5
B. 172.16.1.100
C. 172.16.1.198
D. 172.16.2.255
E. 172.16.3.0

F. 172.16.3.255
Review Questions 179
20. To test the IP stack on your local host, which IP address would you ping?
A. 172.0.0.1
B. 1.0.0.127
C. 127.0.0.1
D. 127.255.255.255

E. 255.255.255.255

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