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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Data Validation

Data Validation in Excel - Easy Excel Tutoriala. Data Validation: Data validation is an Excel feature that you can use to define restrictions on what data can or should be entered in a cell. You can configure data validation to prevent users from entering data that is not valid. If you prefer, you can allow users to enter invalid data but warn them when they try to type it in the cell. You can also provide messages to define what input you expect for the cell, and instructions to help users correct any errors. 
For example, in a marketing workbook, you can set up a cell to allow only account numbers that are exactly three characters long. When users select the cell, you can show them a message such as this one: If users ignore this message and type invalid data in the cell, such as a two-digit or five-digit number, you can show them an actual error message. 
In a slightly more advanced scenario, you might use data validation to calculate the maximum allowed value in a cell based on a value elsewhere in the workbook. In the following the user has typed 4,000 in cell E7, which exceeds the maximum limit of 3600 specified for commissions and bonuses. The data validation commands are located on the Data tab, in the Data Tools group. You configure data validation in the Data Validation dialog box. When is data validation useful? 
Data validation is invaluable when you want to share a workbook with others in your organization, and you want the data entered in the workbook to be accurate and consistent. 
Among other things, you can use data validation to do the following: 

  • Restrict data to predefined items in a list    For example, you can limit types of departments to Sales, Finance, R&D, and IT. Similarly, you can create a list of values from a range of cells elsewhere in the worksheet. 
  • Restrict numbers outside a specified range    For example, you can specify a minimum limit of deductions to two times the number of children in a particular cell. 
  • Restrict dates outside a certain time frame    For example, you can specify a time frame between today's date and 3 days from today's date. 
  • Restrict times outside a certain time frame     For example, you can specify a time frame for serving breakfast between the time when the restaurant opens and 5 hours after the restaurant opens. 
  • Limit the number of text characters    For example, you can limit the allowed text in a cell to 10 or fewer characters. Similarly, you can set the specific length for a full name field (C1) to be the current length of a first name field (A1) and a last name field (B1), plus 10 characters. 
  • Validate data based on formulas or values in other cells    For example, you can use data validation to set a maximum limit for commissions and bonuses of 3,000, based on the overall projected payroll value. If users enter more than 3,000 in the cell, they see a validation message. 
  • Data validation messages (Input Message) 
  • What users see when they enter invalid data into a cell depends on how you have configured the data validation. You can choose to show an input message when the user selects the cell. Input messages are generally used to offer users guidance about the type of data that you want entered in the cell. This type of message appears near the cell. You can move this message, if you want to, and it remains until you move to another cell or press Esc. Error Alert: You can also choose to show an error alert that appears only after users enter invalid data. You can choose from three types of error alerts: 
  • You can customize the text that users see in an error alert message. If you choose not to do so, users see a default message. 
  • Input messages and error alerts appear only when data is typed directly into the cells. They do not appear under the following conditions: 
  • A user enters data in the cell by copying or filling. 
  • A formula in the cell calculates a result that is not valid. 
  • A macro enters invalid data in the cell. 
  • Add data validation to a cell or range 
  • So let's add some data validation. The steps in this section explain how to apply one type of validation—restricting data entry by providing a drop down list—and the table that follows explains how to add some of the other types of validation that Excel provides. 
  • Follow the first three steps in this section to add any type of data validation. 
  • Select one or more cells to validate. 
  • On the Data tab, in the Data Tools group, click Data Validation. 
  • If it isn't already selected, in the Data Validation dialog box, click the Settings tab. 
  • In the Allow box, select List. 
  • Click the Source box and then type the list values, separated by your Microsoft Windows list separator character (commas by default). For example: 
  • To limit an answer to two choices ("Do you have children?" for example), type Yes, No. 
  • To limit a vendor's quality reputation to three ratings, type Low, Average, High. 
  • You can also create the list entries by referring to a range of cells elsewhere in the workbook. 
  •  NOTE    The width of the drop-down list is determined by the width of the cell that has the data validation. You might need to adjust the width of that cell to prevent truncating the width of valid entries that are wider than the width of the drop-down list. 
  • Make sure that the In-cell drop-down check box is selected. Otherwise, you won't be able to see the drop-down arrow next to the cell. 
  • Test the data validation to make sure that it is working correctly. Try entering both valid and invalid data in the cells to make sure that your settings are working as you intended and your messages are appearing when you expect. 
Display an optional input message    

1. Click the Input Message tab (Data tab > Data Tools > Data Validation). 
2. Make sure the Show input message when cell is selected check box is selected. 
3. Fill in the title and text for the message. 

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