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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

DAILY LIFE VOCABULARY

Apology Etiquette and Office Vocabulary 

Chapter Vocabulary

Word
Meaning
Sample Sentence
Stressed
A state of any mental or emotional tension.
Ram seems much stressed after his poor exam.
Launch
An act of instance of starting something.
The government launched a new scheme for the poor people.
Error
A mistake
Ravi found a grammatical error in his new grammar book.
Scold
Blaming someone for any wrong doing
Bhuvan scolded his employees for their poor performance.
Accuse
Claiming that someone has done something wrong.
Bharati accuses her friend Chaya for stealing her necklace.
Fair
Good and honest
Ravi got promoted for doing a fair job.
Ashamed
Embarrassed or guilty because of one’s action.
Ravi is ashamed of his performance in the sports.
Expect
As likely to happen
Bhuvan is excepting Bhoomika to come early in his home.
Apologize
Saying sorry or asking for forgiveness, for doing something wrong.
Bhoomika apologized to Ram for shouting on him in the meeting.
Sorry
Feeling sorrow or sadness.
I’m sorry for my mistakes.
Excuse
Trying to justify
Ram always makes excuse when he makes mistakes.
Resentful
Feeling
or expression of bitterness.
 The manager gave a resentful look to Ram.
Restore
Bring back and regain
Ravi has restored back his position in the office.
Sincere
Genuine and honest
Ravi sincerely apologized to Ravi.
Remorse
Feeling sadness for any wrong doing
Bhuvan is filled with shame and remorse for his deeds.
Acknowledges
Recognizing the importance of one’s quality
The manager acknowledged Ravi for his good job.
Integrity
The quality of being honest.
The minister’s integrity was questioned.
Consequence
Result/Outcome of an action
Bhoomika is facing the consequence of her own job.
Reputation
A common opinion of an individual’s character.
Ram has a good reputation for being very punctual.
Opportunities
Favorable chance
Ravi got a good job opportunity.

- Greet the students and tell the main object of today’s class. 
- Write some phrases on the board: 
daily life english vocabulary
  • “I am really sorry”
  •  “I beg your pardon” 
  •  “Please forgive me” 
- Select anyone in the class and ask his or her idea about it so that you can understand what idea they have at the basic level. 
- Ask the students to write down two sentences each for the given words in the vocabulary. 
How to Apologize?

Asking for Forgiveness

Ram has just arrived at his staff meeting, and he can tell that his boss, Bhoomika, is stressed. He ignores the tension in the room, and launches into his carefully researched presentation. After a few minutes, however, Bhoomika picks up on a tiny error and begins to scold Ram. She accuses him, and the rest of the team, of not doing a fair work. Her hurtful words ashamed Ram, and he leaves the meeting early because he is so upset. As the days pass, Ram expects Bhoomika to apologize for her behavior. However, the apology never comes, and their relationship becomes strained, resentful, and unproductive. A few months later, Ram takes a position in another department. In this situation, Bhoomika could have restored her relationship with Ram with a sincere apology after the meeting. But, instead, she lost a talented team member. 

In this article, we'll see why apologies are so important, and we'll look at how to apologize with sincerity and grace when you have made a mistake. 

What is an Apology?

An apology is a statement that has two key elements: 

1. It shows your remorse over your actions. 
2. It acknowledges the hurt that your actions have caused to someone else. 

We all need to learn how to apologize – after all, no one is perfect. We all make mistakes, and we all have the capability to hurt people through our behaviors and actions, whether these are intentional or not. 

It isn't always easy to apologize, but it's the most effective way to restore trust and balance in a relationship, when you've done something wrong. 

Why Apologize?

There are many reasons why you should make a sincere apology when you've hurt someone unnecessarily, or have made a mistake. 
First, an apology opens a dialogue between yourself and the other person. Your willingness to admit your mistake can give the other person the opportunity he needs to communicate with you, and start dealing with his feelings. 

When you apologize, you will recognize that you are engaged in improper behavior. This helps you rebuild trust and recreate your relationship with the other person. It also gives you a chance to discuss what is and isn't acceptable. 

What's more, when you admit that the situation was your fault, you restore dignity to the person you hurt. This can begin the healing process, and it can ensure that she doesn't unfairly blame herself for what happened. 

Last, a sincere apology shows that you're taking responsibility for your actions. This can strengthen your self-confidence, self-respect, and reputation. You're also likely to feel a sense of relief when you come clean about your actions, and it's one of the best ways to restore your integrity in the eyes of others. 

Consequences of Not Apologizing

What are the consequences if you don't apologize when you've made a mistake?
First, you will damage your relationships with colleagues, clients, friends, or family. It can harm your reputation, limit your career opportunities, and lower your effectiveness – and, others may not want to work with you. 

It also negatively affects your team when you don't apologize. No one wants to work for a boss who can't own up to his mistakes, and who doesn't apologize for them. The tension, and pain that comes with this can create a bad work environment. 

Why Apologies are Difficult?
With all these negative consequences, why do some people still refuse to apologize?
First, apologies take courage. When you admit that you were wrong, it puts you in a helpless position, which can open you up to attack or blame. Some people struggle to show this courage. 

Alternatively, you may be so full of shame and discomfort over your actions that you can't bring yourself to face the other person.
Or, you may be following the advice "never apologize, never explain". It's up to you if you want to be this arrogant, but, if you do, don't expect to be seen as a wise or an inspiring leader. 

How to Apologize Appropriately?

Apologizing or saying sorry is not easy always. There are several ways which you can use to apologize to someone very easily. Find out the following tips and make your apology easier: 

1. The best way to apologize is to be “quick and intense.” The longer you wait to apologize, the longer your fight will remain. 

2. Don’t say you are sorry if you don’t mean it. Apology should be from the heart, and make the person feel that you are truly apologizing to him. 

3. Do not struggle to speak ‘sorry’ someone, when you really mean to. Just say ‘sorry’ simply. 

4. Get ready to pay for your mistakes. 

5. Take full responsibility for hurting the person’s feelings. 

6. Commit that you will never repeat the mistake again.

Match the Apology and Situation.

Apology
Situation
1. Someone enters while you are on the phone
A. “Sorry, I’ll just be a minute.”
2. Someone is speaking a language you don’t know
B. “I’m sorry. I can’t understand what you are saying.”
3. You didn’t follow someone’s instructions
C. “I’m sorry, I Misunderstood”
4. You are trying to stop a stranger to ask for directions.
D. “Excuse me. Can you help me?”
5. A waiter brought you the wrong food.
E. “I’m sorry, but this isn’t what I ordered.”
6. You have spilt someone’s drink
F. “I’m terribly sorry. Let me buy you another one.”
7. You have arrived late at the restaurant
G. “Sorry I’m late. Have you been waiting long?”
8. You need someone to move so you can get off the train.
H. “Excuse me, can I just…”

Activity C 
Situation
To Whom
How
1. I needed a pencil, and I took it from a teammate without permission.


2. I am late in arriving the class.



3. I was walking around the corner of the garden and accidentally fall in the lawn. 


4. I was in hurry and took my sister’s notebook instead of mine.


5. I broke my friend’s mobile.




SITUATION 1

Student A: You work in an office. Your boss gives you too much work, and you sometimes don’t have enough time to do it well. Recently, you have had some problems at home, so you aren’t able to think clearly at work. Yesterday, during a big meeting, your boss angrily disapproved a report you wrote and said you were doing a terrible job. You felt very ashamed. 
Student B: You are the manager at an office. One of your workers, Student A, is not doing a good job these days. You give this person the same amount of work as everyone else, but he / she often does it badly and always makes excuses. This person’s last report was very bad and caused problems between you and your boss. When you mentioned this nicely at a meeting, Student A seemed very angry with you. 

WHO SHOULD APOLOGIZE? 

a. Student A         b. Student B            c. Both Student A and Student B 

SITUATION 2 

Student A: You made a cool sculpture and gave it to your friend, Student B, for his / her birthday. Your friend said, “Oh, I love it!” But a few weeks later, you visited another friend’s house and saw the sculpture there. So Student B didn’t keep the sculpture — he / she gave it to another person! The next time you saw Student B, you mentioned this and said you were upset. Now your friend is angry with you. 

Student B: Your friend, Student A, gave you a weird sculpture for your birthday. You didn’t like it, but you didn’t want to say anything bad about it. You have another friend who likes unusual objects, so you gave the sculpture to him. When Student A learned about this, he / she was very angry and said terrible things to you. 

WHO SHOULD APOLOGIZE?

a. Student A         b. Student B            c. Both Student A and Student B 

Travel and Tourism

Travel & Tourism Vocabulary 

Words
Meaning
Sample Sentences
Tourist
A person who is traveling a place for pleasure.
Tourists like sight-seeing.
Passenger
A person who travels in an automobile or vehicle.
The Bus is full of passengers
Travel Agent
A travel agent is a person who provides travel and tourism related services to the public.
The local travel agent helped Ravi to visit Darjeeling.
Ticket
A piece of paper that allows someone to travel or enter a place.
Bhoomi purchased a bus ticket to go to Burdwan.
Passport
A travel document need to travel from one country to another.
A Passport is very necessary to travel to foreign countries.
Luggage
A bag used to carry personal belongings
Ram packed his luggage to visit Agra.
Suitcase
A case with a handle and hinged lid, used for carrying clothes and personal belongings.
Sham opened his suitcase to take his clothes.
Sightseeing
Visiting places of your interest
All tourists visit Kashmir for sightseeing.
Visit
Going and seeing place of your interest.
Ram and his family will visit Kolkata next week.
Hotel
A building that provides accommodation, meal and other services to the tourists or travelers.
Ravi is living in a hotel for few weeks.
Inn
A house that provides accommodation, food and drink to the travelers.
Ram  booked a room at the Inn.
Restaurant
A place where people visits to eat tasty meals.
Bhoomi likes the Restaurant food.
Bus
A large vehicle used for carry passenger from place to another.
Bharati comes by bus to her school.
Train/Railway
A railway carriage.
I love the train journey.
Flight
A vehicle that flies through the air.
1. Have a safe flight journey. 2. Ravi will take the next flight to reach Mumbai.
Boat
A small vessel used for travelling over the water.
Ram is enjoying the boat ride on the Ganga river.

Part 1 – Introducing Future Tense through Travel and Tourism 
  • Explain the students the three goals for the day. 
  • Inform and explain the students the terms related to travel and tourism as given in the vocabulary list. 
  • Write down the following questions and answers on the board: 
o What will you do in this vacation? 
o This vacation, I will ____________________. 
o What will you do for lunch? o For lunch, I will ________________________. 
  • Explain the meaning of these questions. Ask students to try to answer.  
  • Write down the following information on the board: 
o I am = Present
o I was = Past
o I will = Future 

  • Explain that we will be using the “I will” format today. Ask each student to use the English they already know to make an “I will” statement. Ensure no student is left out.
Part 2 – Using Vocabulary Make Sentences 
  • Direct students to the “Handout” “Resource – Making Plans”. 
  • Going around the room, ask each student pronounce at least one of the vocabulary words. Ask the student also explain what the vocabulary word means. 
  • After reviewing the words, go around the room and ask each student the following question: “What will you do for the holiday?” Ask them answer using the vocabulary. Ensure no student is left out. 
  • Next, go around the room and ask each student the following question: “What do you do for fun?” Ask each student answer this out loud in the present tense using the vocabulary. Explain the difference between a sentence in present tense and one in future tense. 
Example Sentences: 

1) I will take a train to Ranchi / I will take a bus to Ranchi / I will take a plane to Ranchi / I will drive to Ranchi 
2) This holiday, I will go to Ranchi / This holiday, I will eat tasty food / This weekend, I will shop 
3) For lunch, I will walk to the market / For lunch, I will eat at the market 

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