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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

BASICS OF RECORDING TRANSACTION

Free Online Business Accounting Transactions Course | AlisonDouble Entry System (100 mints) The field of accounting—both the older manual systems and today's basic accounting software—is based on the 500-year-old accounting procedure known as double entry. Double entry is a simple yet powerful concept: each and every one of a company's transactions will result in an amount recorded into at least two of the accounts in the accounting system, i.e. every entry to an account requires a corresponding and opposite entry to a different account. For example, if someone transacts a purchase of a drink from a local store, he pays cash to the shopkeeper and in return, he gets a bottle of dink. This simple transaction has two effects from the perspective of both, the buyer as well as the seller. The buyer's cash balance would decrease by the amount of the cost of purchase while on the other hand he will acquire a bottle of drink. Conversely, the seller will be one drink short though his cash balance would increase by the price of the drink.

Another example, when a company borrows money from its bank, the company's Cash account will increase and its liability account Loans Payable will increase. If a company pays Rs12,000 for an advertisement, its Cash account will decrease and its account Advertising Expense will increase.

Accounting attempts to record both effects of a transaction or event on the entity's financial statements. This is the application of double entry concept. Without applying double entry concept, accounting records would only reflect a partial view of the company's affairs. Imagine if an entity purchased a machine during a year, but the accounting records do not show whether the machine was purchased for cash or on credit. Perhaps the machine was bought in exchange of another machine. Such information can only be gained from accounting records if both effects of a transaction are accounted for.

Traditionally, the two effects of an accounting entry are known as Debit (Dr) and Credit (Cr). Accounting system is based on the principal that for every Debit entry, there will always be an equal Credit entry. This is known as the Duality Principal.


Debit entries are ones that account for the following effects:
▪ Increase in assets
▪ Increase in expense
▪ Decrease in liability
▪ Decrease in equity
▪ Decrease in income

Credit entries are ones that account for the following effects:

▪ Decrease in assets
▪ Decrease in expense
▪ Increase in liability
▪ Increase in equity
▪ Increase in income

Double Entry is recorded in a manner that the Accounting Equation is always in balance. Assets - Liabilities = Capital Any increase in expense (Dr) will be offset by a decrease in assets (Cr) or increase in liability or equity (Cr) and vice-versa. Hence, the accounting equation will still be in equilibrium.

The Chart of Accounts (90 mints) To begin the process of setting up Avik's accounting system, he will need to make a detailed listing of all the names of the accounts that Direct Delivery, Inc. might find useful for reporting transactions. This detailed listing is referred to as a Chart of Accounts. (Accounting software often provides sample charts of accounts for various types of businesses.)

As he enters his transactions, Avik will find that the chart of accounts will help him select the two (or more) accounts that are involved. Once Avik's business begins, he may find that he needs to add more account names to the chart of accounts, or delete account names that are never used. Avik can tailor his chart of accounts so that it best sorts and reports the transactions of his business.
Because of the double entry system all of Direct Delivery's transactions will involve a combination of two or more accounts from the balance sheet and/or the income statement. Moupana lists out some sample accounts that Avik will probably need to include on his chart of accounts:

Balance Sheet accounts:

• Asset accounts (Examples: Cash, Accounts Receivable, Supplies, Equipment) 
• Liability accounts (Examples: Notes Payable, Accounts Payable, Wages Payable) 
• Stockholders' Equity accounts (Examples: Common Stock, Retained Earnings)

Income Statement accounts:

• Revenue accounts (Examples: Service Revenues, Investment Revenues) • Expense accounts (Examples: Wages Expense, Rent Expense, Depreciation Expense) To help Avik really understand how this works, Moupana illustrates the double entry with some sample transactions that Avik will likely encounter.

Sample Transaction #1

On December 1, 2014 Avik starts his business Direct Delivery, Inc. The first transaction that Avik will record for his company is his personal Investment Rs12,00,000 in exchange for 5,000 shares of Direct Delivery's common stock. Direct Delivery's accounting system will show an increase in its account Cash from zero to Rs12,00,000 and an increase in its stockholders' equity account Common Stock by Rs12,00,000. Both of these accounts are balance sheet accounts. There are no revenues because no delivery fees were earned by the company, and there were no expenses.
After Avik enters this transaction, Direct Delivery's balance sheet will look like this: Moupana asks Avik if he can see that the balance sheet is just that-in balance. Avik looks at the total of Rs12,00,000 on the asset side, and looks at the Rs12,00,000 on the right side, and says yes, of course, he can see that it is indeed in balance. Moupana shows Avik something called the basic accounting equation, which, she explains, is really the same concept as the balance sheet, it's just presented in an equation format: The accounting equation (and the balance sheet) should always be in balance.
Debits and Credits (100 mints) Did the first sample transaction follow the double entry system and affect two or more accounts? Avik looks at the balance sheet again and answers yes, both Cash and Common Stock were affected by the transaction.
Moupana introduces the next basic accounting concept: the double entry system requires that the same amount of the transaction must be entered on both the left side of one account, and on the right side of another account. Instead of the word left, accountants use the word debit; and instead of the word right, accountants use the word credit. (The terms debit and credit are derived from Latin terms used 500 years ago.)
Avik asks Moupana how he will know which accounts he should debit—meaning he should enter the numbers on the left side of one account—and which accounts he should credit—meaning he should enter the numbers on the right side of another account. Moupana points back to the basic accounting equation and tells Avik that if he memorizes this simple equation, it will be easier to understand the debits and credits.
Just as assets are on the left side (or debit side) of the accounting equation, the asset accounts in the general ledger have their balances on the left side. To increase an asset account's balance, you put more on the left side of the asset account. In accounting jargon, you debit the asset account. To decrease an asset account balance you credit the account, that is, you enter the amount on the right side. Just as liabilities and stockholders' equity are on the right side (or credit side) of the accounting equation, the liability and equity accounts in the general ledger have their balances on the right side. To increase the balance in a liability or stockholders' equity account, you put more on the right side of the account. In accounting jargon, you credit the liability or the equity account. To decrease a liability or equity, you debit the account, that is, you enter the amount on the left side of the account. As with all rules, there are exceptions, but Moupana's reference to the accounting equation may help you to learn whether an account should be debited or credited.
Since many transactions involve cash, Moupana suggests that Avik memorize how the Cash account is affected when a transaction involves cash: if Direct Delivery receives cash, the Cash account is debited; when Direct Delivery pays cash, the Cash account is credited.
 Moupana refers to the example of December 1. Since Direct Delivery received Rs12,00,000 in cash from Avik in exchange for 5,000 shares of common stock, one of the accounts for this transaction is Cash. Since cash was received, the Cash account will be debited. In keeping with double entry, two (or more) accounts need to be involved. Because the first account (Cash) was debited, the second account needs to be credited. All Avik needs to do is find the right account to credit. In this case, the second account is Common Stock. Common stock is part of stockholders' equity, which is on the right side of the accounting equation. As a result, it should have a credit balance, and to increase its balance the account needs to be credited. Accountants indicate accounts and amounts using the following format:
Accountants usually first show the account and amount to be debited. On the next line, the account to be credited is indented and the amount appears further to the right than the debit amount shown in the line above. This entry format is referred to as a general journal entry.
(With the decrease in the price of computers and accounting software, it is rare to find a small business still using a manual system and making entries by hand. Accounting software has made the process of recording transactions so much easier that the general journal is rarely needed. In fact, entries are often generated automatically when a check or sales invoice is prepared.
Sample Transaction #2
Moupana illustrates for Avik a second transaction. On December 2, Direct Delivery purchases a used delivery van for Rs8,40,000 by writing a check for Rs8,40,000. The two accounts involved are Cash and Vehicles (or-delivery Equipment). When the check is written, the accounting software will automatically make the entry into these two accounts. Moupana explains to Avik what is happening within the software. Since the company pays Rs8,40,000, the Cash account is credited. (Accountants consider the checking account to be Cash, and the TIP you learned is that when cash is paid, you credit Cash.) So we know that the Cash account will be credited for Rs8,40,000 and we know the other account will have to be debited for Rs8,40,000. We need only identify the best account to debit. In this case we choose Vehicles (or Delivery Equipment) and the entry is:

As you can see in the balance sheet, the asset Cash decreased by 8,40,000 and another asset Vehicles increased by Rs8,40,000. Liabilities and stockholders' equity were not involved and did not change.

Sample Transaction

The third sample transaction also occurs on December 2 when Avik contacts an insurance agent regarding insurance coverage for the vehicle Direct Delivery just purchased. The agent informs him that Rs72,000 will provide insurance protection for the next six months. Avik immediately writes a check for Rs72,000 and mails it in.
Let's consider this transaction. Using double entry, we know there must be a minimum of two accounts involved—one (or more) of the accounts must be debited, and one (or more) must be credited. Since a check is written, we know that one of the accounts involved is Cash. Since cash was paid, the Cash account will be credited. (Take another look at the last TIP.) While we have not yet identified the second account, what we do know for certain is that the second account will have to be debited. At this point we have most of the entry-all we are missing is the name of the account to be debited:
We know the transaction involves insurance, and a quick look through the chart of accounts reveals two possibilities:
Prepaid Insurance (an asset account reported on the balance sheet) and Insurance Expense (an expense account reported on the income statement)
Assets include costs that are not yet expired (not yet used up), while expenses are costs that have expired (have been used up). Since the Rs72,000 payment is for an expense that will not expire in its entirety within the current month, it would be logical to debit the account Prepaid Insurance. (At the end of each month, when Rs12,000 has expired, Rs12,000 will be moved from Prepaid Insurance to Insurance Expense.)
The entry in the general journal format is: Again, the balance sheet and the accounting equation are in balance and all of the changes occurred on the asset/left/debit side of the accounting equation. Liabilities and Stockholders' Equity were not affected by the insurance transaction.
Sample Transaction #4
The fourth transaction occurs on December 3, when a customer gives Direct Delivery a check for Rs600 to deliver two parcels on that day. Because of double entry, we know there must be a minimum of two accounts involved—one of the accounts must be debited, and one of the accounts must be credited.
Because Direct Delivery received Rs600, it must debit the account Cash. It must also credit a second account for Rs600. The second account will be Service Revenues, an income statement account. The reason Service Revenues is credited is because Direct Delivery must report that it earned Rs600 (not because it received Rs600). Recording revenues when they are earned results from a basic accounting principle known as the revenue recognition principle. The following tip reflects that principle.

Sample Transaction #5

Let's assume that on December 3 the company gets its second customer-a local company that needs to have 50 parcels delivered immediately. Avik's price of Rs15,000 is very appealing, so Avik's company is hired to deliver the parcels. The customer tells Avik to submit an invoice for the Rs15,000, and they will pay it within seven days.
Avik delivers the 50 parcels on December 3 as agreed, meaning that on December 3 Direct Delivery has earned Rs15,000. Hence the Rs15,000 is reported as revenues on December 3, even though the company did not receive any cash on that day. The effort needed to complete the job was done on December 3. (Depositing the check for Rs15,000 in the bank when it arrives seven days later is not considered to take any effort.) Let's identify the two accounts involved and determine which needs a debit and which needs a credit.
Because Direct Delivery has earned the fees, one account will be a revenues account, such as Service Revenues. (If you refer back to the last TIP, you will read that revenue accounts—such as Service Revenues—are usually credited, meaning the second account will need to be debited.) In the general journal format, here's what we have identified so far:
We know that the unnamed account cannot be Cash because the company did not receive money on December 3. However, the company has earned the right to receive the money in seven days. The account title for the money that Direct Delivery has a right to receive for having provided the service is Accounts Receivable (an asset account).Again, reporting revenues when they are earned results from the basic accounting principle known as therevenue recognition principle.
Sample Transaction #6
For simplicity, let's assume that the only expense incurred by Direct Delivery so far was a fee to a temporary help agency for a person to help Avik deliver parcels on December 3. The temp agency fee is 4,800 and is due by December 12.
If a company does not pay cash immediately, you cannot credit Cash. But because the company owes someone the money for its purchase, we say it has an obligation or liability to pay. Most accounts involved with obligations have the word "payable" in their name, and one of the most frequently used accounts is Accounts Payable. Also keep in mind that expenses are almost always debited. The accounts and amounts for the temporary help are:

 Notice that the year-to-date net income (bottom line of the income statement) increased Stockholders' Equity by the same amount, Rs10,800. This connection between the income statement and balance sheet is important. For one, it keeps the balance sheet and the accounting equation in balance. Secondly, it demonstrates that revenues will cause the stockholders' equity to increase and expenses will cause stockholders' equity to decrease. After the end of the year financial statements are prepared, you will see that the income statement accounts (revenue accounts and expense accounts) will be closed or zeroed out and their balances will be transferred into the Retained Earnings account. This will mean the revenue and expense accounts will start the new year with zero balances—allowing the company "to keep score" for the new year. Moupana suggested that perhaps this introduction was enough material for their first meeting. She wrote out the following notes, summarizing for Avik the important points of their discussion:
1. When a company pays cash for something, the company will credit Cash and will have to debit a second account. Assuming that a company prepares monthly financial statements— ▪ If the amount is used up or will expire in the current month, the account to be debited will be an expense account. (Advertising Expense, Rent Expense, Wages Expense are three examples.) ▪ If the amount is not used up or does not expire in the current month, the account to be debited will be an asset account. (Examples are Prepaid Insurance, Supplies, Prepaid Rent, Prepaid Advertising, Prepaid Association Dues, Land, Buildings, and Equipment.) ▪ If the amount reduces a company's obligations, the account to be debited will be a liability account. (Examples include Accounts Payable, Notes Payable, Wages Payable, and Interest Payable.)
2. When a company receives cash, the company will debit Cash and will have to credit another account. Assuming that a company will prepare monthly financial statements— ▪ If the amount received is from a cash sale, or for a service that has just been performed but has not yet been recorded, the account to be credited is a revenue account such as Service Revenues or Fees Earned. ▪ If the amount received is an advance payment for a service that has not yet been performed or earned, the account to be credited is Unearned Revenue. ▪ If the amount received is a payment from a customer for a sale or service delivered earlier and has already been recorded as revenue, the account to be credited is Accounts Receivable. ▪ If the amount received is the proceeds from the company signing a promissory note, the account to be credited is Notes Payable. ▪ If the amount received is an INVESTMENT of additional money by the owner of the corporation, a stockholders' equity account such as Common Stock is credited. 3. Revenues are recorded as Service Revenues or Sales when the service or sale has been performed, not when the cash is received. This reflects the basic accounting principle known as the revenue recognition principle. 4. Expenses are matched with revenues or with the period of time shown in the heading of the income statement, not in the period when the expenses were paid. This reflects the basic accounting principle known as the matching principle. 5. The financial statements also reflect the basic accounting principle known as the cost principle. This means assets are shown on the balance sheet at their original cost or less and not at their current value. The income statement expenses also reflect the cost principle. For example, the depreciation expense is based on the original cost of the asset being depreciated and not on the current replacement cost.

Now as we have already gained some idea about the accounting concept and different terms related to accounting.
Now let’s summarize about the concepts delivered through the story:
1. We have learnt about different Financial Statements such as: a) Income Statement ▪ In income statement we have known about Revenues and Expenses  b) Balance Sheet  ▪ In Balance Sheet we have known about Assets, Liabilities, Stockholders' Equity c) Statement of Cash Flows 2. Then we have learnt about Basics of Recording Transaction, Such as  a) Double Entry system,  b) The Chart of Accounts,  c) Debits and Credits 3. We have also seen multiple sample transaction through Tally ERP 9 

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