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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

BASIC GRAMMAR

Sentence Structure
Theory

English Grammar - English Grammar Basics, Basic Lessons
A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought. As you create more complex sentences in English, it is important to understand how to develop these sentences. Creating essays and higher level written debates utilize this knowledge in order to make the paragraph more relevant and cohesive. 

Example

1. Ram studies in Calcutta University. 
2. Ram lives in Delhi, but studies in Calcutta. 

Sentence Structure – Simple, Compound & Complex

Trainer’s Note
  •  Before you start off with the kinds of sentences, help the students in revising the previous lesson on clauses. 
  • Next begin explaining the kinds of sentences like: Simple, Compound and Complex. 
  • Define each of the sentence structure with its example. 
  • Now divide the classroom into two parts and ask the two groups to write three sentences each for Simple, Compound and Complex sentence. Next ask one student from each group to write the sentences on the board that each of their group has written together.  
  • Having been explained the sentence types, ask the students to complete the activity. 

Simple sentences

Simple sentences usually include one simple verb – subject agreement. These sentences are the most basic sentence type. 
Subject + verb + object. 
Ex: She sleeps all day. 
The Fried Rice tastes delicious. 

Compound sentences

Compound sentences can be the result of two simple sentences combined into one. They take a more creative turn, and are often a more interesting use of a sentence. Instead of using a string of short, simple sentences, try making more compound sentences. Compound sentences are split by a comma and conjunctions, and they usually have more than one subject – verb agreement.  The two parts of the sentence must relate to each other. 
Subject + verb + object (, conjunction) Subject + verb + object 
Conjunctions: for, nor, so, and, but, yet 
Ex: She sleeps all day, but still looks tired. 
The Cricket team tried hard to win, but lost the game. 

Complex sentences

Complex sentences consist of one independent clause joined to a dependent clause. In the instance of independent clauses, subordinators are also used. Independent clauses can come first or second in the sentence, however when a subordinator or relative pronoun comes first a comma is often not needed. 

Subordinators: although, because, since, after, when. 

Ex: Although I knew what to do I could not do it. 

Sentences that contain adjective clauses, and use relative pronouns, are also considered independent clauses, and thus must be joined to a dependent clause in order to form a complex sentence. 

Relative pronouns: who, that, whom 

Ex: The house where I grew up is in Kolkata. 

Ram returned the computer when he noticed it was damaged. 

Trainer’s Note

  • Direct the students to complete Activity A,B, C & D from the Workbook Activity 3.3

Looking at the following sentences, determine if they are complex, compound, or simple. 

1. I ate, so I became full. (Compound)
2. Although it was late, I could not sleep. (Complex)
3. She was dissatisfied. (Simple) 
4. I needed to do better, so I worked harder. (Compound) 
5. My head hurt, but I did not go home. (Compound) 
6. I have grown tired of working on this computer. (Simple) 
7. The woman with whom I just spoke is very angry with our service abilities. (Complex) 
8. Because times had changed I started to change my habits. (Complex) 
9. I loved to eat pork, but because I had grown plump I no longer ate it. (Complex) 
10. With time I will no longer think of my childhood days. (Simple) 

Write two sentences for each sentence type. 

complex






compound







simple




Activity C
Make the following series of sentences into complex sentences. Some sentences need to be corrected, while others need additions of subordinators or punctuation. 

1. I am old. I am happy. (Although I am old, I am happy). 
2. There are many houses on this street. I live in one. (There are many houses on this street, including the one in which I live.) 
3. Although I am experienced. I am not tired of my job. (Although I am experienced, I am not tired of my job). 
4. I love cricket. However I hate baseball. (I love cricket; however, I hate baseball.) 
5. When the wind blows. I am drawn to the mountains. (Even when the wind is blowing, I am drawn to the mountains). 
6. If I was twenty. I would be young again. (If I was twenty, I would be young again.) 
7. My computer has long been broken. I need a new computer. (I need a new computer, because my computer has long been broken.) 
8. I hate IT. Although I work here. (Although I work here, I hate IT.) 
9. Because I would like to help you. I have taken an interest in your problem. (Because I would like to help you, I have taken an interest in your problem.) 
10. I am prepared to do the best I can. I need more time. (Even though I am prepared to do the best I can, I need more time).

Activity D

Using this new knowledge on how to structure a sentence, write a paragraph on something you wish you had done in your past. Make sure to pay special attention to which types of sentences you are using. 

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