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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

SOCIAL NETWORKING

Introduction

SOCIAL NETWORKING
A social network service is an online service offered by various websites that focuses on communicating with different users and provides the facility for building of social relations among people who, for example, share interests, activities, backgrounds, or real-life connections. 

A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his/her social links, and a variety of additional services. Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging. 
The most commonly used social networking Websites are Facebook, Google+, YouTube, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Twitter, e.t.c. 

Facebook

Introduction:
  
Facebook is an online social networking service. Facebook was founded on February 4, 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow Harvard University students Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. Facebook now allows anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old to become a registered user of the website. 

The user must register before using the site, after which they may create a personal profile, add other users as friends, exchange messages, and receive automatic notifications when they update their profile. Additionally, users may join common-interest user groups, organized by workplace, school or college, or other characteristics, and categorize their friends into lists such as "People From Work" or "Close Friends". 

How to create a Facebook account: 

Users need to open the Facebook website using a browser. The user may write Facebook keyword in a search engine or directly write the website address (www.facebook.com) in the address bar of the browser to open Facebook page. 

Existing Facebook users will login using their user id (email id used to create the Facebook account), new users would need to Sign Up to create a new account. Users need to fill in the required details in the Sign Up section. 

After successful Sign Up process, the user will reach the “getting started” page of Facebook. In this section users will be able to find friends, fill out information, choose interest and add profile picture. The user may also skip any of the steps according to his/her relevance.  
In 

Step 1, the user needs to find friends. The friends would mostly be suggested, from the contacts or email users of the Email ID used for creating the user’s Facebook account. 

While filling out self-information (Profile info in Step 2), user may select any of the privacy option to display self-information: 

1. Public : To display the information for all Facebook users. 
2. Friends : To display the information only for friends. 
3. Only Me : Neither friends or others would be able to view the information. 
4. Custom : Create own privacy display option.  

After providing the required information, click on Save and Continue to proceed the steps one by one.  

In Step 3 the user need to choose their field of interest, according to which the user would receive news and several feeds and in 

Step 4 user may upload a profile photo to represent him against his Facebook ID 
Privacy option 

After completing Step 4, the users will be directed to the Profile Home page. From the home page section we get various options like: Log Out, Notification, Find Friends, News Feeds, Messages, Events, Create Group or Join Existing Group. 

How to use various options of your Facebook account?

In the Facebook Home page, most popular options are as: 

  •  Privacy Shortcuts: From this option you may set various privacy settings on “who” would be able to view “what” in your profile and who would be able to send Friend request. 

1. Who can see my Stuff: From this privacy shortcut, you would be able to allow “Public”, “Friends” or “none” to view your stuff.

2. Who can contact me? : Users may select the “Basic Filtering” option, if the user wants to receive messages into inbox, from Friends and Known person. 
Users may select the “Strict Filtering” option, if the user wants to receive messages into inbox only from Friends and willing to miss messages even from any known person. 
In the “Who can send me friend requests” option, users may allow “anyone” or only “friends of friends”. 
  
 3. How do I stop someone from bothering me? : Users may restrict any person from viewing any posts or block the person from starting any conversation with the user, by adding name or Email ID in the space provided. 
If the user want to see the list of blocked users, it may be found from the option, “View All Blocked Users”.

4. See More Settings: Users may use this option for setting various privacy levels. Privacy settings are available as given below and the security options are similar as discussed in earlier segment: 
a. Who can see my stuff? 
b. Who can contact me? 
c. Who can look me up? 

  • Notification: In this section, all the new incidents would be highlighted. The number of  new notifications would be indicated against the icon. On clicking the icon, a list would show recent notifications and if required to check all notifications, need to select the “See All” option. 


If the user want to see the list of blocked users, it may be found from the option, “View All Blocked Users”. 

  • Messages: On clicking the Messages icon, users would be able to check messages of Inbox and Others. The messages from Friends would reach “Inbox” and messages from persons not in friend list would reach the “Others”. 
  • Find Friends: Various peoples would be suggested to users for sending Friend request(Add Friend). The user may select the known peoples to add as friend.  

Users may select “Home” option to go to the User’s Homepage. 

  •  Timeline: In the Timeline segment, users are able to write their status, upload photo , share life events, e.t.c. This may be set to be viewed by Everyone or Friends. Timeline is the new Facebook profile. Tell your life story through photos, friendships and personal milestones like graduating or traveling to new places. 

Chat: Through this option users would be able to do online conversation with their Facebook Friends. Users would find the Chat window at the bottom right portion of your Facebook page, click to open chat window. All your friends would be listed in the chat list and if the friends would be connected with internet they would be shown “online” denoted by a green signal along with the name. 
Click on each name to have conversation, you may chat with multiple users by clicking on different 

  •  Friends: User would be able to check all his friends according to different category and may also check the photos of all categories from the option “See All Friends”. 

To create new list, click on “Create New”, give the name of new list and add the friend’s ID or name to be included in the list. 

  • Photos: Users would be able to see all the photos and Upload new photo. 
  • Groups: Users may add to any existing groups or create a new group. After joining or creating a Group the members would be able to check other members of the group, Write Post, Add Photo/Video, Ask Questions to discuss any topic as a forum, add files, chat with one or more members in the group and send invitation mail to others users for joining the group. 

To join an existing Group, user may click on “Create Group”, where in various Groups option would be suggested for joining. Or user may select “Group” option and thereafter select from various available Group categories to join. 

Twitter

Twitter: (http://www.twitter.com) is a service for friends, family, and coworkers to communicate and stay connected through the exchange of quick, frequent messages. People post Tweets, which may contain photos, videos, links and up to 140 characters of text. 

Objective:
   
To incorporate students the use of social networking sites, these will help the students to gain more knowledge about understanding the different benefits and usage of social networking sites and to become more computer savvy and updated and will help to gain more knowledge in their respective domain. 

What Exactly Is 'Twitter'? What Is 'Tweeting'?

Twitter is micro-blogging. It allows you to tweet, update and communicate with friends, companies and organization from any part of the world. Twitter is a very interesting social networking site. It includes Hyperlink and tweets, where the tweets are limited to maximum 140 characters, because twitter is very Short Message Service like SMS. 

Now we’ve finally decided to see what this whole Twitter thing is all about. 

Here we’ve made a simple guide for you all to follow how to open a new Twitter account and show you how easy it is. 

Let’s begin. 

Step -1

Create your account and complete your profile.

How to create your Twitter account? 

Create your account here: https://twitter.com/signup 

Things you’ll need: 

• Email address 

• Username 

• Password 

Creating Twitter Account is as same as creating Facebook and LinkedIn profile, where members need to approve social connections, so default settings for Twitter are public. First you need to have an email account for creating twitter profile. 

First you open your browser and go to http://twitter.com then find the sign up box and click on the sign up box. A box will open to Join Twitter Today message, here you can just enter your name, your email address and create a strong password for your Twitter account, and click the sign up. 

Next a box opens with country, mobile number and verification code. Enter all details step by step when and where asked, after you entered the verification code, click on verify, a new box will open, choose a provided username and again click next. You can change your username any time after profile creation by entering in your twitter setting area any time. 

Step- 2 You can follow and make follower 

Twitter is like Facebook, Google+ and others social media networks, that helps making friends, follow and share thoughts and news. Twitter is most popular social networks that enables you to connect with celebrity, politician, and community and even increases your followers, Here, you can 
like and re-tweet content and photo anytime. However, Twitter allows you to connect with others only when you complete your profile. 

Step-3 Profile Photo 

In this step you need to choose Profile Photo. Your twitter profile picture must be very clear and small. Use a generally photo or any type of logo, because your connections on others social media can get to recognize your twitter profile easily. 

Step- 4 Cover Photo 

In this step, choose a good twitter cover photo that reflects your personality and business Image. Always choose a good quality or high resolution twitter cover photo.  Your twitter cover photo should not too big nor small size. You can choose Horizontal cover and also standard pixel size of about 851 x 351. Please Choose cover image related to your personality, your tour programs, your office celebration party and any photo you like to share with the world. 

Step – 5 Now Time to Send Tweets

After you create your twitter profile account successful, you are free to Tweet now, which means send massage like as post. Always remember twitters allow only 140 characters for each tweets including a separate link. Only 140 characters help you, keep your message short and sweets.   

Promoting your new Twitter Account 

Before you start telling the world about your new Twitter account, make sure you’ve gone through all of the steps above. Get a few tweets under your belt. Let people see what they’ll get from you if they choose to follow you. 

If they land on your Twitter profile and you don’t have a profile image, no bio details and haven’t tweeted yet, they really have no reason to want to follow you. 

The ultimate Twitter glossary list

@ - The “at” sign is used to mention another Twitter account. It acts as a link to that user’s profile and lets that user know you have mentioned them in a tweet. 

# - The “hashtag” is used to highlight keywords 

DM - Direct message. When someone tweets you and says “DM for more info,” that means they want you to send them a private message between you and them. 

 - The caret is used to denote a tweet composed and sent by an individual on behalf of a group account used by multiple people (often a company or organization) account. You’ll usually see these at the end of a tweet and precedes initials of the person who composed the tweet ( ^TE) 

$ - The dollar sign is used before a company’s shortened stock market name as a financial hashtag. These stock market names prefixed with the $ become clickable links within a tweet. 

FF - Stands for “follow Friday.” This is a way to give a shoutout to other Twitter users, suggesting people to follow them. Usually used with a hashtag (#FF).  

HT - Stands for “hat tip,” and can be styled H/T as well. This is a way you can give someone credit for originally sharing content you are tweeting. You could also use “via” if you wanted. It will always be followed by an @ mention. 

ICYMI - “In case you missed it.” You’ll usually see this when someone retweets or re-shares his or her own content from earlier. 

MT/MRT - This means a modified tweet or retweet. Essentially means the same thing as a retweet, but lets others know that you have slightly modified the tweet. 

How Twitter can help your business? 

People come to Twitter to discover what’s happening in the world right now, to share information instantly, and to connect with people and businesses around the globe. 
No matter what type of business you have — from a large retailer to a freelance designer; from a B2B software provider to a mobile app company — you can use Twitter to build meaningful connections with a relevant and engaged audience.  
These connections can lead to actions across a network of loyal customers for your business. 

How Twitter Can Help in Education? 

The tweets could be useful to begin a more nuanced class discussion into the subject area. What is talked about inside the classroom, with the help of Twitter, may carry over into discussions outside the classroom. 

By using Twitter, pupil can collaborate on school projects and work in a group, online college students may keep in touch by setting up Skype times, and share interesting links related to the projects, because its communication is instantaneous. 

Furthermore, Twitter is a handy tool for bringing the outside world into the classroom. Students are able to ask questions and receive answers in real-time. 

Networking. Now-a-days, being well networked is imperative for many college students. While they are earning their degrees online or in-person, they typically come into contact with a wide variety of people such as professors, career counselors, peers, and potential employers at the job fairs. 

YouTube

You Tube: (http://www.youtube.com/) - A great network for users posting video blogs or Vlogs and other fun and interesting videos. 

What is YouTube? 

YouTube is a free video sharing website that makes it easy to watch online videos.

You can even create and upload your own videos to share with others. Originally created in 2005, YouTube is now one of the most popular sites on the Web, with visitors watching around 6 billion hours of video every month. 
If you've ever watched a video online, there's a good chance it was a YouTube video. 

Why use YouTube? 

One reason YouTube is so popular is the sheer number of videos you can find. On average, 100 hours of video are uploaded to YouTube every minute, so there's always something new to find! And you'll find all kinds of videos on YouTube—adorable cats, quirky cooking demos, funny science lessons, quick fashion tips, and a whole lot more. 

YouTube is a website designed for sharing video. Millions of users around the world have created accounts on the site that allow them to upload videos that anyone can watch. Every minute of every day, more than 35 hours of video is uploaded to YouTube. 

Video files can be very large and are often too big to send to someone else by email. By posting a video on YouTube, you can share a video simply by sending the other person a url ‘link’ – that is, the 'address' of the relevant internet page. 

You tube also became both an archive for storing favorite clips, songs and jokes, as well as a marketing site for companies to promote their products. 

Nowadays the term ‘viral video’ is common. This refers to a video clip that people have liked so much that they've shared its link by email with millions of others around the globe – in effect, it's spread like a virus. Companies have realized that they can harness this ability to reach potential customers and have created their own YouTube accounts for posting advertisements and other marketing videos. 

YouTube to allow fans to see high-quality trailers or repeats of recently aired shows. 

Key Benefits and Features of YouTube 

• Create an account to share videos up to 15 minutes long with your family and friends
.  
• You can upload videos that are longer than 15 minutes if you follow steps to verify your account.

• Use the YouTube edit facility to create a movie with music and other features.

• Search the archive for your favorite clips. 

• Catch up with programs you’ve missed via ‘channels’ like 4oD, Channel 4’s playback channel.

• Comment on and rate movies you’ve watched. 

• Watch a full-length feature film on your computer. 

• Use YouTube's caption and subtitle facilities, and take advantage of its 3D and high-definition capability. 

Why YouTube Should Be Part of Your eLearning Course? 

You know already that eLearning videos can be a very powerful learning tool, this is why the video-sharing website YouTube can provide unlimited opportunities to enhance your eLearning course by not only using the countless videos you can find there, but also creating your own to help your audience achieve their goal.

It is really easy to integrate. Adding YouTube videos to your eLearning course is an easy task, due to the variety of authoring tools and learning management systems out there. You can use YouTube videos to introduce a topic, explain an online activity, motivate your learners, or simply extend the information conveyed by your eLearning course. It generates and promotes online discussion. It is ideal for mobile learning. 

Uploading eLearning content to YouTube makes it available throughout the YouTube network, which means that your learners can access it and view it on the go via their smartphones and tablets, and other devices used in mobile learning. 

It allows for micro learning about short, effective instructional videos on YouTube. It encourages the development of note-taking skills. It enhances comprehension of complex concepts, and even it allows learners to make their own YouTube videos. 

YouTube tips and tricks with the basic keyboard shortcuts, which almost everyone will be aware of: 

Space-Play/Pause 

F-Full screen 

Esc-Exit Full screen 

↑-Increase Volume 

↓-Decrease Volume

←-Go back 5 Seconds 

→-Go forward 5 Seconds

In fact you can even skip parts of the video without mouse-clicking on the time slider by simply pressing the number keys on your keyboard. Pressing the 1 key skips 10% of the video, the 2 key skips 20% of the video and so on. Pressing the number 0, takes you back to the start of the video. 

This is one handy YouTube trick which allows you to start a video from a specific time instead of having to tell people the specific time where the boring introduction gets over or point to the part of the video where the real fun begins. 

Here is how it works. Consider the following YouTube URL:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0pLbTXPHng 

Now to jump to a 1:23 in the video just simply add #t01m23s to the link

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A0pLbTXPHng#t=01m23s 

Get Video URL at current time by right clicking the mouse on the time slider at the desired time and clicking on the Get video URL at current time option. 

A dialog box containing the link will be generated. Just copy the link and use it to like. 

Turn any video into a GIF: 

Who doesn’t like a funny old GIF! Well good news for you, it is pretty simple to create a GIF out of a YouTube video. All you need to do is to add the word ‘gif’ just after the ‘www.’ in the URL. 
  
It shall redirect you to a page where you can make a GIF as per your required specifications in a matter of minutes. In fact you can even enter captions in your GIF image through this tool. 

YouTube Tips and Tricks – GIF

Repeat The Complete Video or Parts of it automatically: 
There are times when we stumble upon a video which no matter how much we try we can’t resist 
watching again and again. It could be a music video, a funny prank or perhaps an awe-inspiring stunt scene from some movie. To repeat certain portion of the video or the complete video all you need to do is to add the word ‘repeater’ after ‘youtube’ in the URL. 
For example: Consider this YouTube URL:  

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6DFLNa6MBA 

Just change it to: https://www.youtuberepeater.com/watch?v=D6DFLNa6MBA 

It shall redirect you to a page where you can loop the required portions of the video. 

Download YouTube Videos: 

Wish to download a YouTube video so that you can watch it sometime later. All you need to do is to add ‘ss’ after ‘www.’ in the URL of the YouTube video.

For example: Consider this YouTube URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eisKxhjBnZ0 

Just change it to: https://www.ssyoutube.com/watch?v=eisKxhjBnZ0 

You will be redirected to a page from where you can download the video in the desired quality and format. 

YouTube Tips and Tricks – Video Downloading 

Just be careful that downloading the video doesn’t infringe the copyrights of the owner. 

Accurate Keyword Searching: 

Finding the exact video that you want to watch on YouTube can prove to be a time-consuming experience provided the fact that there are billions of videos on the site with more and more being added every day. To refine your search and reduce the time involved in finding your desired video, try using the allintitle keyword. 

Doing so will return you results which have all the chosen keywords. 

Other Common YouTube Tips and Tricks That You Might Have Overlooked: 

Auto-play - In case you do not want to play the suggested video after the one that you are watching currently, just disable the auto-play feature found towards the right corner of the page. 

Speed- You can alter the speed of the video and play it faster or slower to your like. Just click on Setting on the time slider, go to Speed and then choose the speed that you prefer. 

Subtitles- You can even enable subtitles for a video in YouTube. Head to settings on the time slider and then click on Subtitles and turn them on! Although, this feature is not available for some videos. 

YouTube Tools – Most people might not be aware but YouTube also provides certain tools so as to help the user in creating new content. There are a variety of tools from Analytics to the Video Editor which you should definitely try using at-least once. 

O Profile 
O Network 
O Jobs 
O Add Connection 
O Account and Settings 
O Messages 
O Notifications 

  • Ask the students to perform the activity as given in their workbook  

Introduction: LinkedIn is a business-oriented social networking service. Founded in December 2002 by Reid Hoffman along with others and launched on May 5, 2003, it is mainly used for professional networking. 

The LinkedIn publishing platform gives you the opportunity to expand your reach in a major way. Since all LinkedIn members have access to the platform, it’s critical for you to create high-quality Profile that differentiates you. 

Advantages of using LinkedIn: 

1. Getting into HR network: Today, a large number of organizations look for talented candidates on social networking platforms like LinkedIn. If users have created a good and detailed professional profile, chances are high for attracting employer’s attention. 

2. Connecting with Professionals: Users can find out large number of professionals who choose to connect here. Users can also find their friends, co-workers, colleagues, classmates and family members on this platform. 

3. Conducting Company Research: One of the biggest benefits LinkedIn offers college students and job-seekers is that they can check out the pages of the targeted employers. By visiting company pages, users can conduct a research on the whereabouts of the company, the hiring process and what people have to say about the organization. 

4. Getting Job Email Alerts: Users can set alerts to receive notifications of recommended jobs. Students and Job seekers will be able to see the notifications on their homepage as soon as they log into their LinkedIn accounts. 

5. Getting Recommendations: LinkedIn also offers a feature through which you can get other people to recommend you. People with a maximum number of recommendations have a great chance of attracting the employers’ attention. 

6. Connecting with Other Students: College students can also use LinkedIn to network with other students. This type of networking gives a wonderful opportunity to find out how other college graduates found a job or got hired by an employer. 

7. Landing on International Jobs: As LinkedIn is a global networking platform. People interested in landing overseas jobs, can get a lot of benefits by networking on this social media website. Users can connect with all the major international employers and find jobs in foreign countries. 

How to create a LinkedIn account: 

Users need to open the LinkedIn website using a browser. The user may write LinkedIn keyword in a search engine or directly write the website address (www.linkedin.com) in the address bar of the browser to open LinkedIn page. 

Existing LinkedIn users will login using their user id (email id used to create the LinkedIn account), new users would need to Sign Up (New Registration) to create a new account. Users need to fill in the required details in the Registration section. 

After successful registration, users would be taken through few steps to complete the User’s profile.

 In the 1st step user’s professional profile creation would be done. Fill in the required details and click on “Create My Profile”. 

Required Details: 

Select the country (India),  

Postal code: Pin code of the user’s address

I am currently: Select Employed, if working in an organization. 

Select Job Seeker, if the user is searching for a job after having a previous experience. 

Job Title: According to current Job Profile, users may define a title summarizing his/her current or preferred job role. 

Company: Name of the current employer (organization). 

The 2nd step would be “Add Connections”. The connections would mostly be suggested, from the contacts or email users of the Email ID used for creating the user’s LinkedIn account. 

After clicking the Add Connection(s) option, a confirmation message of “invitation has been sent” will be shown. Other email ids/users (non LinkedIn users from basis on your email contacts.) would be suggested, so that the user may add them to Network for creating account with LinkedIn. After making your choice and clicking on “Add to Network”, the selected Non LinkedIn users would receive invitation to join LinkedIn. 

In the 3rd step, few more connections would be suggested. If any known connections(existing LinkedIn users) found select and click on “Add connections” or users may skip this step to proceed further. 

If any connection been selected, a confirmation message of invitation has been sent would be shown and you would be suggested to get the App for Android based or other windows based Smart phone. You may choose to “Get the app” or “skip” the step. To get the app, users need to provide the mobile number being used in the handset. 

 In the next step, users need to select the type of account to start the LinkedIn account. A) Basic Account is free and B) Premium Account is chargeable. 

After confirming the Account type, users would reach the “Get Started” page, where the users would cover the following things: 

Experience: Users need to provide the current job profile or prefered professional industry related information such as, Industry type, Company name, Position in the company, job tenure in the company, e.t.c 

 Education: In this section users need to provide the details regarding their education background, such as: College or school from where their last or previous qualification was done.Different activities may be mentioned, in which the user had participated while pursuing education. 

After providing the current or last education details, users would be directed to provide another education details, wherein the user may provide his/her other previous school name, stream and year in the school

  • Photo: In this step users may upload a photo which would represent the user. 
  • Skills & Expertise: Users may provide as much skills keyword as possible, which would represent the user’s job profile and experience/expertise in different fields or applications. 

E.g: If a user is Web Developer, then the user may add the web language (known by him) as skills: java, php, sql, html, web page development, e.t.c 

  • Details: In this section, the user may provide more details related to given experience or given education.  The details would be about your Job role/responsibilities according to previous experience and other details would be about different activities in your education field. 

In the details section the last option would be to summarize yourself. Herein you may describe about yourself in terms of achievements, success, failures, learning, passions, etc.
   

  • See your improved profile after completing the Details. Here the users would be able to see and edit the summary of all the Experience and Education details, provided against their profile. 

After completing profile, users may use their account after knowing these different options: 

  • Profile: Edit Profile by clicking on “Profile” and then clicking on “Edit Profile”. Users would get to edit each field one below the other. After editing required fields, the user needs to click on “Done editing” to confirm and save the changes.  

Users may check their profile visitors by clicking on “Who’s Viewed Your Profile” (in the Profile segment). 

  •     In the Network segment users would get three options  

Contacts: To check for the peoples already in connection and few other contacts would be suggested, users may also sync their email id to invite all the contacts from their mails. 


Add Connections: Users may add their different email ids to invite other LinkedIn users, already in their email contacts. 

Find Alumni: Users may click on “Alumni” to get connected with people from their schools, who are active LinkedIn Users. 
     
Jobs: Users would be able to search for various jobs according to their skill set and preferable job profile or industry type, they may also directly apply to various other companies/organizations listed in the page. 

While searching for a job, first the user may give the preferable job locations, thereafter the size of the organization (according to number of employees working) is required, where the user would feel comfortable to work and finish by selecting the type of industries, for which they are interested. 
Interests: Users my select various fields of interest to check the updates of their selected  

Companies, selected Groups, selected Pulse (news and insights) or Education. Users would also be recommended more Companies, Groups or other interests to follow. 

Account and Settings: From Account and Settings users would be able to

  • : Sign out their account 
  • Upgrade Account Type 
  • Manage Job posting 
  • Manage Company page 
  • Change Language 
  • Change or review Privacy and Settings 

Add Connections: Users may add their different email ids to invite other LinkedIn users, already in their email contacts and users may also connect to different Groups by clicking “Join Group”. 
After joining or creating a Group the members would be able to check other members of the group, Write Post, Add Photo/Video, Ask Questions to discuss any topic as a forum, add files, chat with one or more members in the group and send invitation mail to others users for joining the group. 
    
Notifications: Users would be notified of different activities against their account and would also be notified of various activities from their connections. 

Messages: In this icon the users would be notified about new messages in to inbox. On clicking the icon, users will visit the Message page and would get the below mentioned options for different tasks: 

Compose : To write new message 

Messages : To check previous or new conversations 

Invitations : To check for any pending invitations  

Sent  : To check for sent messages or invitations 

Archive : The invitations, which have been recycled or accepted, would be found under Archive. 

Trash  : To check the deleted messages. 
    
Search and Advanced Search: Users would be able to search People, Jobs, Companies, Groups Universities and Messages. You may select on “All”, to search along all the criteria or users may select specific criteria to search. Users may also click on “Advanced” for advanced search on People or Jobs, wherein users would be able to confine their search by using Keywords, Names, Title, Company, School and Location. 

Global Positioning System 

Introduction of GPS

Global positioning system is a technology that send & receives signals. A GPS receiver collects signals that you request & provides you the information. By using GPS, you can find location, weather updates, time in any time anywhere in the world for free. This GPS technology originally was designed for the military for their help. GPS system can be used by smart devices like smart phone, Tablet etc.

Uses of GPS 

GPS technology has many amazing applications on land, at sea & also in the air. GPS technology are using in following: 

a) Agriculture 

b) Aviation 

c) Environment 

d) Marine 

e) Military 

f) Public safety 

g) Rail 

GPS Application 

The application of GPS technology can be broadly divided into two categories: 1. tracking devices and 2. Navigation systems. 

• GPS in Tracking 

GPS tracking devices are the simplest form of this technology; they can also be used in combination with communication technologies like radio transmission and telephony. With tracking, a tracking center can monitor the movements of several vehicles or people in real time. These may be criminals, military and police personnel or young children whose parents need to keep an eye on them while they are away. 

In all these cases, the tracking set up has a GPS receiver, GPS software and a device to transmit the resulting co-ordinates, such as GPS watches or cell phones that transmit radio waves. 

• GPS in Navigation 

Once a user is located through GPS, the location can be identified on a map. This is useful for tasks like locating a unit, finding a route from point A to B or selecting a suitable route in real time. 

However, navigation requires map work and this is not part of GPS systems. Therefore, mapping has to be done using associated technologies which often necessitate the use of portable computers and such gadgets. 

Advantages and Disadvantages Global Positioning System 

This system is now being used for many other purposes and GPS system has proved to be a revolutionary technology in today's world. There are several advantages of GPS at present and in contrast to that there are some disadvantages also. Some of them are: 

Advantages of Global Positioning System: 

• GPS is extremely easy to navigate as it tells you to the direction for each turns you take or you have to take to reach to your destination. 

• GPS works in all-weather so you need not to worry of the climate as in other navigating devices. 

• The GPS costs you very low in comparison other navigation systems.

• The most attractive feature of this system is its 100% coverage on the planet. 

• It also helps you to search the nearby restaurants, hotels and gas stations and is very useful for a new place. 

• Due to its low cost, it is very easy to integrate into other technologies like cell phone. 

• The system is updated regularly. 

• This is the best navigating system in water as in larger water bodies we are often misled due to lack of proper directions. 

Disadvantages of Global Positioning System 

• Sometimes the GPS may fail due to certain reasons and in that case you need to carry a backup map and directions. 

• If you are using GPS on a battery operated device, there may be a battery failure and you may need an external power supply which is not always possible. 

• Sometimes the GPS signals are not accurate due to some obstacles to the signals such as buildings, trees and sometimes by extreme atmospheric conditions such as geomagnetic storms.

What Are GPS Systems Used for? 

Your imagination is the only limitation to the possibilities of global positioning system (GPS) technologies. GPS systems are extremely versatile and can be found in almost any industry sector. They can be used to map forests, help farmers harvest their fields, and navigate airplanes on the ground or in the air. GPS systems are used in military applications and by emergency crews to locate people in need of assistance. 

GPS technologies are often working in many areas that we do not normally consider. Global positioning system applications generally fall into 5 major categories: 

a) Location - Finding a position  

b) Navigation - Getting from one location to another
  
c) Tracking - Monitoring object or personal movement  

d) Mapping - Creating maps of the world  

e) Timing - Bringing precise timing to the world 

Some of the applications that GPS systems are currently being used for around the world include mining, aviation, surveying, agriculture, marine, recreation, and military. These days’ doctors, scientists, farmers, soldiers, pilots, hikers, delivery drivers, sailors, fishermen, dispatchers, athletes, and people from many other walks of life are using GPS systems in ways that make their work more productive, safer, and easier. 

GPS usage on smart devices:

Android devices use the same global positioning technology as Google Maps and most third-party GPS tools do. This allows users to locate themselves on a map, find and navigate to destinations via detailed directions, and search maps using a number of different methods. Let’s talk about the installation & GPS access process. 

Step 1: Find out the pre-installed “Play store” app in your smart devices. 

Step 2: Tap the "Search" icon in the top right corner & type “google map”. 

 Step 3: Tap the Google Maps icon and click “Install”. 

Step 4: Launch the Google Maps app by tapping the icon on your device’s home screen. 

Step 5: Tap the “GPS” icon from the launcher to use GPS to locate yourself on a map. It is located in the bottom right corner. The device will automatically detect your current location on the screen. 

GPS navigation usage through smart devices: 

We can use google map or GPS technology for searching new places, hotels, offices & others. So let’s talk about how the GPS technology is helpful to us. 

Step 1: Launch the Google Maps app by tapping the icon on your device’s home screen. If it is not installed, first install the app by following above steps.   

Step 2: Type the place you want to search, in Search box of google map. Then the map will show you the location. 

Step 3: If you want to get route from source to destination then type source & destination address, then click on search button. You will get the details route map on the screen of your smart device.

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