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NETWORK BASICS

Network A system of interconnected computers and computerized peripherals such as printers is called computer network. This interconnection among computers facilitates information sharing among them. Computers may connect to each other by either wired or wireless media. A computer network consists of a collection of computers, printers and other equipment that is connected together so that they can communicate with each other.  


Network application
A Network application is any application running on one host and provides a communication to another application running on a different host, the application may use an existing application layer protocols such as: HTTP(e.g. the Browser and web server), SMTP(e.g. the email-client). And may be the application does not use any existing protocols and depends on the socket programming to communicate to another application. So the web application is a type of the network applications. 
There are lots of advantages from build up a network, but the th…

Accounting Introduction

Accounting Terms Every Business Owner Should Know First, provide the students some concept on what is simple accounting and how the accountancy and accounting is related to each other. 
• Thereafter through the help of given story explain them about different financial statement, Balance sheet and Statement of Cash flows. 
• Apart from the explanation and example given in the story, use some real-life example and concepts to teach the students.  
• Involve students to get more examples from their general idea, thereafter use their examples to explain the actual concept, also clarify them the correctness and incorrectness of the concept from their given example. 
• The student should be encouraged to give such more examples they should not get demotivated even if they make mistake. With every attempt, their expertise would increase.  

First, we need to know that the term Accountancy is related to Profession and the term Accounting is related to Methodology. 
It is generally the measurement, disclosure or provision of assurance about financial information primarily used by managers, investors, tax authorities and other decision makers to make resource allocation decisions.  
It may be summarized as a service based profession or methodology that provide reliable and relevant financial information useful in making decisions. 
Financial information may include sales, expenses, taxes and other figures. 

Accounting concept through Story 

We will present the basics of accounting through a story of a person starting a new business. The person is Avik Das—a savvy man who sees the need for a parcel delivery service in his community. Avik has researched his idea and has prepared a business plan that documents the viability of his new business. 
Avik has also met with an attorney to discuss the form of business he should use. Given his specific situation, they concluded that a corporation will be best. Avik decides that the name for his corporation will be Direct Delivery, Inc. The attorney also advises Avik on the various permits and government identification numbers that will be needed for the new corporation. 
Avik is a hard worker and a smart man, but admits he is not comfortable with matters of accounting. He assumes he will use some accounting software, but wants to meet with a professional accountant before making his selection. He asks his banker to recommend a professional accountant who is also skilled in explaining accounting to someone without an accounting background. Avik wants to understand the financial statements and wants to keep on top of his new business. His banker recommends Moupana, an accountant who has helped many of the bank's small business customers. 
At his first meeting with Moupana, Avik asks her for an overview of accounting, financial statements, and the need for accounting software. Based on Avik's business plan, Moupana sees that there will likely be thousands of transactions each year. She states that accounting software will allow for the electronic recording, storing, and retrieval of those many transactions. Accounting software will permit Avik to generate the financial statements and other reports that he will need for running his business. 
Avik seems puzzled by the term transaction, so Moupana gives him five examples of transactions that Direct Delivery, Inc. will need to record: 
1. Avik will no doubt start his business by putting some of his own personal money into it. In effect, he is buying shares of Direct Delivery's common stock. 2. Direct Delivery will need to buy a sturdy, dependable delivery vehicle. 3. The business will begin earning fees and billing clients for delivering their parcels. 
4. The business will be collecting the fees that were earned. 5. The business will incur expenses in operating the business, such as a salary for Avik, expenses associated with the delivery vehicle, advertising, etc. With thousands of such transactions in a given year, Avik is smart to start using accounting software right from the beginning. Accounting software will generate sales invoices and accounting entries simultaneously, prepare statements for customers with no additional work, write cheques, automatically update accounting records, etc. 
By getting into the habit of entering all of the day's business transactions into his computer, Avik will be rewarded with fast and easy access to the specific information he will need to make sound business decisions. Moupana tells Avik that accounting's "transaction approach" is useful, reliable, and informative. She has worked with other small business owners who think it is enough to simply "know" their company made 15 Crore during the year (based only on the fact that it owns 15 Crore more than it did on January 1). Those are the people who start off on the wrong foot and end up in Moupana's office looking for financial advice. 
If Avik enters all of Direct Delivery's transactions into his computer, good accounting software will allow Avik to print out his financial statements with a click of a button. In Parts 2 through 7 Moupana will explain the content and purpose of the three main financial 

statements: 

1. Income Statement 
2. Balance Sheet 
3. Statement of Cash Flows 

Income Statement (60 mints) 
Moupana points out that an income statement will show how profitable Direct Delivery has been during the time interval shown in the statement's heading. This period of time might be a week, a month, three months, five weeks, or a year—Avik can choose whatever time period he deems most useful. 
The reporting of profitability involves two things: the amount that was earned (revenues) and the expenses necessary to earn the revenues.  

A. Revenues 

The main revenues for Direct Delivery are the fees it earns for delivering parcels. Under the accrual basis of accounting (as opposed to the less-preferred cash method of accounting), revenues are recorded when they are earned, not when the company receives the money. Recording revenues when they are earned is the result of one of the basic accounting principles known as the revenue recognition principle. 
For example, if Avik delivers 1,000 parcels in December for 300 per delivery, he has technically earned fees totaling to Rs3,00,000 for that month. He sends invoices to his clients for these fees and his terms require that his clients must pay by January 10. Even though his clients won't be paying Direct Delivery until January 10, the accrual basis of accounting requires that the Rs3,00,000 be recorded as December revenues, since that is when the delivery work actually took place. After expenses are matched with these revenues, the income statement for December will show just how profitable the company was in delivering parcels in December. 
When Avik receives the Rs3,00,000 worth of payment checks from his customers on January 10, he will make an accounting entry to show the money was received. This Rs3,00,000 of receipts will not be considered to be January revenues, since the revenues were already reported as revenues in December when they were earned.  

B. Expenses 

Now Moupana turns to the second part of the income statement—expenses. The December income statement should show expenses incurred during December regardless of when the company actually paid for the expenses. 
For example, if Avik hires someone to help him with December deliveries and Avik agrees to pay him Rs30,000 on January 3, that Rs30,000 expense needs to be shown on the December income statement. The actual date that the Rs30,000 is paid out doesn't matter. What matters is when the work was done—when the expense was incurred—and in this case, the work was done in December. The Rs30,000 expense is counted as a December expense even though the money will not be paid out until January 3. The recording of expenses with the related revenues is associated with another basic accounting principle known as the matching principle. 
Moupana explains to Avik that showing the 30,000 of wages expense on the December income statement will result in a matching of the cost of the labor used to deliver the December parcels with the revenues from delivering the December parcels. This matching principle is very important in measuring just how profitable a company was during a given time period. 
Moupana is delighted to see that Avik already has an intuitive grasp of this basic accounting principle. In order to earn revenues in December, the company had to incur some business expenses in December, even if the expenses won't be paid until January. Other expenses to be matched with December's revenues would be such things as gas for the delivery van and advertising spots on the radio. 

Avik asks Moupana to provide another example of a cost that wouldn't be paid in December, but would have to be shown/matched as an expense on December's income statement. Moupana uses the Interest Expense on borrowed money as an example. She asks Avik to assume that on December 1 Direct Delivery borrows Rs12,00,000 from Avik's aunt and the company agrees to pay his aunt 6% per year in interest, or Rs72,000 per year. This interest is to be paid in a lump sum each on December 1 of each year. 
Now even though the interest is being paid out to his aunt only once per year as a lump sum, Avik can see that in reality, a little bit of that interest expense is incurred each and every day he's in business. If Avik is preparing monthly income statements, Avik should report one month of Interest Expense on each MONTH'S INCOME statement. The amount that Direct Delivery will incur as Interest Expense will be Rs6,000 per month all year long (12,00,000 x 6% ÷ 12). In other words, Avik needs to match Rs6,000 of interest expense with each month's revenues. The interest expense is considered a cost that is necessary to earn the revenues shown on the income statements. 

Moupana explains to Avik that the income statement is a bit more complicated than what she just explained, but for now she just wants Avik to learn some basic accounting concepts and some of the accounting terminology. Moupana does make sure, however, that Avik understands one simple yet important point: an income statement, does not report the cash coming in—rather, its purpose is to: 
1. Report the revenues earned by the company's efforts during the period,  2. Report the expenses incurred by the company during the same period.  
The purpose of the income statement is to show a company's profitability during a specific period of time. The difference (or "net") between the revenues and expenses for Direct Delivery is often referred to as the bottom line and it is labeled as either Net Income or Net Loss. 
Balance Sheet (20 mints) 
Moupana moves on to explain the balance sheet, a financial statement that reports the amount of a company's (A) assets, (B) liabilities, and (C) stockholders' (or owner's) equity at a specific point of time. Because the balance sheet reflects a specific point of time rather than a period of time, Moupana likes to refer to the balance sheet as a "snapshot" of a company's financial position at a given moment. For example, if a balance sheet is dated December 31, the amounts shown on the balance sheet are the balances in the accounts after all transactions pertaining to December 31 have been recorded. 
In accounting terms, a balance sheet is a statement of the book value of all of the assets and liabilities (including equity) of a business or other organization or persona at a particular date. 
A modern Balance sheet usually has three parts: assets, liabilities and shareholder’s equity. 
(A) Assets (100 mins) 
Assets are things that a company owns and are sometimes referred to as the resources of the company. Avik readily understands this—off the top of his head he names things such as the company's vehicle, its cash in the bank, all of the supplies he has on hand, and the dolly he uses to help move the heavier parcels. Moupana nods and shows Avik how these are reported in accounts called Vehicles, Cash, Supplies, and Equipment. She mentions one asset Avik hadn't considered—Accounts Receivable. If Avik delivers parcels, but isn't paid immediately for the delivery, the amount owed to Direct Delivery is an asset known as Accounts Receivable. 

 Prep-aids

Moupana brings up another less obvious asset—the unexpired portion of prepaid expenses. Suppose Direct Delivery pays Rs72,000 on December 1 for a six-month insurance premium on its delivery vehicle. That divides out to be Rs12,000 per month. Between December 1 and December 31, Rs12,000 worth of insurance premium is "used up" or "expires". The expired amount will be reported as Insurance Expense on December's income statement. Avik asks Moupana where the remaining Rs60,000 of unexpired insurance premium would be reported. On the December 31 balance sheet, Moupana tells him, in an asset account called Prepaid Insurance. 
Other examples of things that might be paid for before they are used include supplies and annual dues to a trade association. The portion that expires in the current accounting period is listed as an expense on the income statement; the part that has not yet expired is listed as an asset on the balance sheet. 
Moupana assures Avik that he will soon see a significant link between the income statement and balance sheet, but for now she continues with her explanation of assets. 
Cost Principle and Conservatism 
Avik learns that each of his company's assets was recorded at its original cost, and even if the fair market value of an item increases, an accountant will not increase the recorded amount of that asset on the balance sheet. This is the result of another basic accounting principle known as the cost principle. 
Although accountants generally do not increase the value of an asset, they might decrease its value as a result of a concept known as conservatism. For example, after a few months in business, Avik may decide that he can help out some customers—as well as earn additional revenues—by carrying an inventory of packing boxes to sell. Let's say that Direct Delivery purchased 100 boxes WHOLESALE for Rs60 each. Since the time when Avik bought them, however, the wholesale price of boxes has been cut by 40% and at today's price he could purchase them for Rs36 each. Because the replacement cost of his inventory (Rs36) is less than the original recorded cost (Rs60), the principle of conservatism directs the accountant to report the lower amount (Rs36) as the asset's value on the balance sheet. 
In short, the cost principle generally prevents assets from being reported at more than cost, while conservatism might require assets to be reported at less than their cost. 

Depreciation 

Avik also needs to know that the reported amounts on his balance sheet for assets such as equipment, vehicles, and buildings are routinely reduced by depreciation. Depreciation is required by the basic accounting principle known as the matching principle. Depreciation is used for assets whose life is not indefinite—equipment wears out, vehicles become too old and costly to maintain, buildings age, and some assets (like computers) become obsolete. Depreciation is the allocation of the cost of the asset to Depreciation Expense on the income statement over its useful life. 
As an example, assume that Direct Delivery's van has a useful life of five years and was purchased at a cost of Rs12,00,000. The accountant might match Rs2,40,000 (Rs12,00,000 ÷ 5 years) of Depreciation Expense with each year's revenues for five years. Each year the carrying amount of the van will be reduced by Rs2,40,000. (The carrying amount—or "book value"—is reported on the balance sheet and it is the cost of the van minus the total depreciation since the van was acquired.) This means that after one year the balance sheet will report the carrying amount of the delivery van as Rs9,60,000, after two years the carrying amount will be Rs7,20,000, etc. After five years—the end of the van's expected useful life—its carrying amount is zero. 
Avik wants to be certain that he understands what Moupana is telling him regarding the assets on the balance sheet, so he asks Moupana if the balance sheet is, in effect, showing what the company's assets are worth. He is surprised to hear Moupana say that the assets are not reported on the balance sheet at their worth (fair market value). Long-term assets (such as buildings, equipment, and furnishings) are reported at their cost minus the amounts already sent to the income statement as Depreciation Expense. The result is that a building's market value may actually have increased since it was acquired, but the amount on the balance sheet has been consistently reduced as the accountant moved some of its cost to Depreciation Expense on the income statement in order to achieve the matching principle. 
Another asset, Office Equipment, may have a fair market value that is much smaller than the carrying amount reported on the balance sheet. (Accountants view depreciation as an allocation process—allocating the cost to expense in order to match the costs with the revenues generated by the asset. Accountants do not consider depreciation to be a valuation process.) The asset Land is not depreciated, so it will appear at its original cost even if the land is now worth one hundred times more than its cost. 
Short-term (current) asset amounts are likely to be close to their market values, since they tend to "turn over" in relatively short periods of time. 
Moupana cautions Avik that the balance sheet reports only the assets acquired and only at the cost reported in the transaction. This means that a company's reputation—as excellent as it might be—will not be listed as an asset. It also means that Jeff Bezos will not appear as an asset on Amazon.com's balance sheet; Nike's logo will not appear as an asset on its balance sheet; etc. Avik is surprised to hear this, since in his opinion these items are perhaps the most valuable things those companies have. Moupana tells Avik that he has just learned an important lesson that he should remember when reading a balance sheet. 

Liabilities

The balance sheet reports Direct Delivery's liabilities as of the date noted in the heading of the balance sheet. Liabilities are obligations of the company; they are amounts owed to others as of the balance sheet date. Moupana gives Avik some examples of liabilities: the loan he received from his aunt (Notes Payable or Loan Payable), the interest on the loan he owes to his aunt (Interest Payable), the amount he owes to the supply store for items purchased on credit (Accounts Payable), the wages he owes an employee but hasn't yet paid to him (Wages Payable). 
Another liability is money received in advance of actually earning the money. For example, suppose that Direct Delivery enters into an agreement with one of its customers stipulating that the customer prepays Rs36,000 in return for the delivery of 30 parcels every month for 6 months. Assume Direct Delivery receives that Rs36,000 payment on December 1 for deliveries to be made between December 1 and May 31. Direct Delivery has a cash receipt of Rs36,000 on December 1, but it does not have revenues of a Rs36,000 at this point. It will have revenues only when it earns them by delivering the parcels. On December 1, Direct Delivery will show that its asset Cash increased by Rs36,000, but it will also have to show that it has a liability of Rs36,000. (It has the liability to deliver Rs36,000 worth of parcels within 6 months, or return the money.) 
The liability account involved in the Rs36,000 received on December 1 is Unearned Revenue. Each month, as the 30 parcels are delivered, Direct Delivery will be earning Rs6,000, and as a result, each month Rs6,000 moves from the account Unearned Revenue to Service Revenues. Each month Direct Delivery's liability decreases by Rs6,000 as it fulfills the agreement by delivering parcels and each month its revenues on the income statement increase by Rs6,000. 
(C) Stockholders' Equity (30 mints) 
If the company is a corporation, the third section of a corporation's balance sheet is Stockholders' Equity. (If the company is a sole proprietorship, it is referred to as Owner's Equity.) The amount of Stockholders' Equity is exactly the difference between the asset amounts and the liability amounts. As a result accountants often refer to Stockholders' Equity as the difference (or residual) of assets minus liabilities. Stockholders' Equity is also the "book value" of the corporation. 
Since the corporation's assets are shown at cost or lower (and not at their market values) it is important that you do not associate the reported amount of Stockholders' Equity with the market value of the corporation. (Hence, it is a poor choice of words to refer to Stockholders' Equity as the corporation's "net worth".) To find the market value of a corporation, you should obtain the services of a professional familiar with valuing businesses. 
Within the Stockholders' Equity section you may see accounts such as Common Stock, Paid-in Capital in Excess of Par Value-Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Retained Earnings, and Current Year's Net Income. 
The account Common Stock will be increased when the corporation issues shares of stock in exchange for cash (or some other asset). Another account Retained Earnings will increase when the corporation earns a profit. There will be a decrease when the corporation has a net loss. This means that revenues will automatically cause an increase in Stockholders' Equity and expenses will automatically cause a decrease in Stockholders' Equity. This illustrates a link between a company's balance sheet and income statement. 

Statement of Cash Flows 

The third financial statement that Avik needs to understand is the Statement of Cash Flows. This statement shows how Direct Delivery's cash amount has changed during the time interval shown in the heading of the statement. Avik will be able to see at a glance the cash generated and used by his company's operating activities, its investing activities, and its financing activities. Much of the information on this financial statement will come from Direct Delivery's balance sheets and income statements. 
In other words Cash Flow Statement, presents the movement in cash and bank balances over a period. 

The movement in cash flows is classified into the following segments: 

• Operating Activities: Represents the cash flow from primary activities of a business. 
• Investing Activities: Represents cash flow from the purchase and sale of assets other than inventories (e.g. purchase of a factory plant) 
• Financing Activities: Represents cash flow generated or spent on raising and repaying share capital and debt together with the payments of interest and dividends. 
Moupana now explains to Avik the basics of getting started with recording his transactions. 

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